Tag Archives: Treatment For Borderline Personality Disorder

Should BPD Treatment Be More Individualized?

should BPD treatment be more individualized?

Problems Relating To The Diagnosis Of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD):

In order to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) an individual must suffer from AT LEAST FIVE SYMPTOMS out of a total of NINE listed in the DSM V (The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition). These nine symptoms are listed in the table presented below :

symptoms of BPD DSM 5


However, despite the fact that BPD can manifest itself in very different ways in different individuals, when it comes to therapy we often find that a ‘one-size fits all‘ approach is taken.

Should BPD Treatment Be More Individualized?


Furthermore, the different therapies available for the treatment of BPD tend to focus upon a presumed, single, fundamental, underlying ‘core feature’ of the disorder, yet these features differ depending upon the selected form of therapy. In other words, different types of therapy for BPD are predicated upon differing theories the disorder. In his excellent book, Integrated Modular Treatment For Borderline Personality Disorder, Livesly, a leading expert in the treatment of borderline personality disorder, provides the following examples :

DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY – this therapy focuses primarily upon the symptom emotional dysregulation or, in other words, the inability to control intense, volatile and quickly fluctuating emotions. (To read my article about dialectical behavior therapy, please click here).

MENTALIZATION BASED THERAPY – this therapy assumes the main difficulty that BPD patients suffer from is a marked impairment of their ability to ‘mentalize’ –(To read my post explaining what ‘mentalization’ is, and what may cause impairment to a person’s ability to mentalize,please click here).

TRANSFERENCE-FOCUSED THERAPY – this therapy is predicated upon the notion that the BPD sufferer’s primary problem is a disturbance in his/her fundamental personality structure

SCHEMA-FOCUSED THERAPY – this therapy assumes that the BPD sufferer’s main underlying problem is his/her maladaptive schemas which s/he developed as a result of a dysfunctional childhood. (Click here to read my previously published article entitled : Childhood Trauma Leading To The Development Of Negative Schema.)

And, of course, Livesly points out, the ‘core features’ / symptoms that these different therapies focus, and the different theories that underpin them, dictate the ‘modus operandi in relation to the forms of treatment they provide.

Conclusion :

Because BPD is a multifaceted disorder and those who suffer from it will present with different constellations of serious symptoms, treating them with therapies that focus primarily on just one core feature (as in the case of the four therapies described above) may be inadequate – instead, more holistic forms of treatment may be appropriate that integrate methods from an array of therapies relevant to the unique pattern of symptoms manifested by each individual ; this is the main thesis Livesly’s book which can be purchased by clicking the image below :

eBook :

BPD eBook

Above eBook now available on Amazon for instant download. Click here for further information.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Signs of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescence

Signs of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescence

Borderline Personality Disorder And The Adolescent

Giving a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) to an adolescent is problematic. However, given the emotional problems I had at that stage in my life, I wish, in retrospect, there had been professional intervention – for one thing, I was deeply depressed, and, in my teens, would cry with a regularity more commonly associated with toddlers (including even bursting into tears in lessons at secondary school). How I would have responded to the idea of such professional intervention at the time, however, is another matter.

How I might have reacted to being told I needed psychiatric help as a teenager.

Most professionals are reluctant to give an adolescent a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) due largely to the fact that during teenage years personality traits such as rebelliousness, uncertainty regarding identity, fluctuating emotions, changeable relationships, poor decision making, anger and impulsiveness, are, to a degree, a normal part of the developmental stage the young person is at. ; this complicates and confuses the diagnostic process in relation to BPD.

Also, if the diagnosis is wrong, the adolescent may become unnecessarily stigmatized. Furthermore, young people often resent professional intervention in connection with such a sensitive issue as mental health and may regard such intervention as another stressor/problem. Indeed, if professional intervention is mishandled, it can do yet further substantial damage to the young person’s already rock-bottom self-esteem

How do we know if these the traits referred to above are just symptoms of being an adolescent or whether, instead, they are a sign of something more serious? In order to attempt to resolve this question, clinicians will usually focus on the following three factors :

1) PERSISTENCE OF SYMPTOMS eg are there long-standing emotional instability and chronic relationship problems which show no sign of abating or of being resolved?

2) SEVERITY OF SYMPTOMS eg is suicidal behavior/ideation present? Is self-harming/self-mutilating behavior present? Is anger so extreme that it puts the adolescent, or others, in danger? Is impulsiveness so extreme that it puts the adolescent, or others, in danger?

3) AMOUNT OF DISTRESS CAUSED BY THE SYMPTOMS eg is the adolescent in obvious significant emotional pain (perhaps due to loneliness, depression or anxiety)? This is likely to be the most important consideration of all.

Because of the problems entailed in diagnosing a young person with BPD, clinicians tend much to prefer making a diagnosis of the adolescent having ‘borderline personality traits.’ This means that the young person shows some behaviors similar to those found in adults with BPD (which go beyond the normal range of behaviors one typically finds in teenagers/young people), but it is too early to make a definite diagnosis of BPD.


It is important to point out that, despite the problems noted above, receiving professional intervention and a diagnosis can bring potentially tremendous, even life-saving ( ten per cent of BPD sufferers end up killing themselves), benefits.

There is strong evidence that making an early diagnosis reduces the risk of the development of full-blown BPD as an adult, as well as reducing the risk of the development of co-morbidities such as addictions and self-harm.

In short, then, early intervention can save the adolescent from an adulthood of profound emotional pain, despair and loss.



The symptoms to look out for are similar to the symptoms that an adult sufferer of BPD would display (click here to view a video on BPD). However, in adolescents the fluctuations in mood may be even more extreme and dramatic than those of an adult with BPD. Because of this, adolescents who are later diagnosed as having BPD have not infrequently initially been misdiagnosed as having bipolar disorder.

Click on image below to enlarge.

The connection between BPD and brain abnormalities

The connection between BPD and brain abnormalities




At present dialectical behavior therapy, or DBT (click here to read my article on DBT) is the main treatment provided to adolescents, though it is a form of DBT that has been specially adapted for young people.

The treatment given to adolescents with BPD traits differs from that given to adults with BPD. FAMILY INVOLVEMENT WITH THE TREATMENT IS CRUCIAL as adolescents are, in general, more psychologically enmeshed with their families than are adults. Also, the family may be the main source of the young person’s stress, or, indeed, paradoxically, his/her main source of support as well.

Furthermore, the social context in which an adolescent finds him/herself (friends, acquaintances, peers etc) is a vital part of his/her life and goes a long way towards molding the young person’s sense of his/her own identity. It is again crucial, therefore, that clinicians gain a good understanding of how this may be affecting the adolescent.

Another way in which DBT for young people differs from DBT given to adults is that, whilst adults are encouraged to take ‘full ownership’ of their illness, most adolescents will not realize that one of the main causes of their own problems is likely to stem from their more extreme behavior ; this can be because they have not yet had enough adverse as evidence for the connection (whereas an adult, for example, may have lost his/her home, family, job, friends etc as a consequence of his/her BPD).

Instead of seeing the link between their behaviors and their predicament, adolescents are far more likely to EXTERNALIZE their problems (eg blame them on others – although, of course, this may be partly or pretty much wholly correct in some circumstances).


It follows from the above that the adolescent should not be blamed for his/her behaviour as, for one thing, this is likely to have the effect of yet further diminishing his/her self-esteem which will, in turn, almost inevitably increase the level of problem behaviors. Instead, the focus should be on trying to understand the root causes of the problem behaviors and rectifying, as far as possible, these.

Parents need to attend the DBT sessions along with their child where they, too, will be informed and educated about BPD as well as trained in the skills that the young person is trained in to manage BPD symptoms.

It is important for the adolescent to understand that, if he/she is diagnosed with having BPD traits that its symptoms have, hitherto, been out of his/her control. It also needs to be acknowledged that it is the young person’s deeply painful and  distressing emotions which lie behind his/her behavior, not malice.




Above  eBooks available on Amazon for immediate download. CLICK HERE.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Study Shows 73% Recover from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)


Until recently, it was frequently suggested that borderline personality disorder (BPD) was very difficult, if not impossible, to treat. During my research for this article, I have been disturbed to discover, also, that in the recent past some clinicians did not regard BPD as an illness at all – instead, they put forward the view that those diagnosed with BPD were not mentally disordered, but, rather, simply ‘bad’ and ‘manipulative’ people!

This reminds me of a time I made a very serious and determined suicide attempt and the psychiatrist I saw afterwards (who knew very little about me) tried to make the case that I had not really intended to kill myself but was seeking attention and sympathy. When I protested and tried to explain the attempt had been made very much in earnest (one might even say, ‘deadly earnest), he responded (and I quote him verbatim) : ‘It sounds like you’re talking bullshit to me!’

Highly professional.

In connection with the cynical and deeply insulting attitude that my psychiatrist displayed, I would also point out that, in my own personal view, some individuals (in my case, certain family members and former friends) like to take the view the BPD sufferer is not really ill as this, in their minds, absolves them of any responsibility to provide help and support.

Despite such pessimism, a study funded by Columbia University found that 73.5% of the participants who took part in their study recovered from BPD within 6 years. Even more encouragingly, it was found in the same study that more than half actually recovered within just 2 years.

Another encouraging finding of the study was that only 6% of those who had recovered relapsed (and, even if they did, this was mainly due to the effects of an extremely stressful event/s).


– 1.4% of the participants commited suicide in the first 2 years of the study

– 1.7% of the participants commited suicide in the next 2 years of the study

– 0.7% of the participants commited suicide in the final 2 years of the study

(This gives a total of 3.8%, or about 1 in 25, who commited suicide during the study).

– 65.9% achieved good psychological functioning by the end of the study (32.4% after 2 years, 48.3% after 4 years, 65.9% by end of study).


– Impulsiveness (this symptom improved best of all)

– Mood/affect (although this improved leat well)

– Interpersonal functioning


– Suicidal behaviors

Psychotic symptoms

The study also showed that the two factors which most helped the individuals to recover were :

1) Ending a destructive relationship

2) Determination to get well.

BPD eBook


Above eBooks now available for immediate download on Amazon. CLICK HERE.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).