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Childhood Trauma And Tachycardia

tachycardia

My own resting heart rate, which is usually at least 105 beats per minute, according to my GP, ‘is nothing to worry about.’

Since a resting heart rate of above is technically classified as ‘tachycardia’ (an abnormally fast beating heart), it seems to me it is something to worry about – presumably my GP’s intent was to play things down so that I did not become anxious about it as this, in turn, perhaps, could have raised it further still.

Anyway, I suggested I started taking beta-blockers and she kindly acquiesced to this modest request (though, not untypically, they appear not to work on me). 

tachycardia

CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND TACHYCARDIA :

Studies show that children who have been so badly mistreated so as to go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have increased nervous system reactivity which is associated with being in a state of hypervigilance, as if perpetually trapped in the ‘fight / flight’ response.

In order to investigate this phenomenon further, Perry conducted a study of 34 children who had an average age of ten years and had been diagnosed as suffering from PTSD.

FINDINGS FROM THE STUDY :

Perry found that 85% of the children in this study (whom, as described above,  had been diagnosed with PTSD) had an average resting heart rate of 94 beats per minute. This is significantly higher than the resting heart rate of the average ten-year-old child, which is only 84 beats per minute.

This established, the children were then required to undertake a simple task : they were required to lie down for 9 minutes and then stand up for a further 10 minutes.

RESULTS :

Amongst the whole group of children who took part in this simple experiment, two distinct patterns of heart rate emerged.

PATTERN ONE :

  • A higher-than-control basal heart rate whilst lying down.
  • A dramatic increase in heart rate upon standing up.
  • A slow return, during the ten minute period of standing up, to the baseline heart rate.

 PATTERN TWO :

  • A normal increase in heart rate upon standing up.
  • A sluggish return to the baseline heart rate.

FURTHER STUDY :

Perry (1999) later built upon this study by carrying out the following experiment :

  • Children were interviewed about their experiences of abuse.
  • Throughout the interview, their heart rates were continuously monitored.

RESULTS OF FURTHER STUDY :

  • Certain children (who were mainly female and many of whom suffered from symptoms of dissociation) showed a REDUCTION in heart rate during the interview (when compared to their heart rate during a period of free play).
  • However, another group of children from the study (who suffered from symptoms of hyperarousal) showed an INCREASED heart rate during the interview (when compared to their heart rate during a period of free play).

 CONCLUSION :

From these findings, it was concluded that children may respond to their experiences of trauma in one of two ways :

  1. By ‘shutting down’ emotionally, resulting in physiological under-reactions to stress.
  2. By becoming emotionally hyperaroused, resulting in physiological over-reactions in response to stress.

You can read more about these two contrasting traumatic responses in my previously published article entitled : Two Opposite Ways The Child Responds To Stress : Hyperarousal And Dissociation.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

How Childhood Trauma Can Make Us Constantly Hypervigilant

What Is Meant By Hypervigilance?

A person who is hypervigilant feels constantly ‘on edge’ , ‘keyed up’ and fearful. S/he experiences a perpetual sense of dread and of being under threat despite the fact, objectively speaking, there is no present danger. Indeed, the person affected in this way is so intensely alert to, and focused upon, any conceivable imminent danger that s/he may develop paranoia-like symptoms and frequently perceive danger in situations where no such danger, in reality, exists.

Nervous System

In physiological terms, the nervous system becomes ‘stuck’in an over-activated state and it is very difficult for the hypervigilant individual to calm him/herself sufficiently to enable it to return to a normal level of activation ; instead, it becomes locked into the fight or flight mode (the hypervigilant person’s body is in a continuous state of preparedness to fight or flee because of the anticipation of threat the person feels).

Hypervigilane, Hyperarousal, Childhood Trauma And Complex PTSD :

Hypervigilance is one of the many symptoms of hyperarousal.

Hyperarousal, in turn, is a symptom of PTSD / Complex PTSD which are conditions linked to severe and protracted childhood trauma.

 

Other symptoms of hyperarousal may include :

  • insomnia (e.g. constant waking in night and finding it hard to go back to sleep)
  • extremely sensitive startle response
  • problems with concentration and mental focus
  • abiding feelings of irritability and anger, perhaps giving rise to outbursts of extreme rage / verbal aggression, or, even, physical violence
  • constant anxiety
  • panic attacks
  • reckless behavior
  • using short-term ‘solutions’ such as drinking too much alcohol or using street drugs to reduce painful feelings which, in the longer-term, are self-destructive

It is not difficult to see why the experience of childhood trauma should be linked to increased risk of develop hypervigilance as an adult : if we have lived our early life in an environment that made us feel constantly anxious, under threat and fearful ,our very neural development (i.e. the development of our brain) can be adversely affected and it is such negative effects that can leave us so vulnerable and predisposed to developing the disorder, particularly at times when  our adult lives expose us to further stressful experiences.

RESOURCES :

 

LINK : One of the world’s leading experts on how trauma affects the body, and what can be done about it, is the author of The Body Keeps Score’, Bessel van der Kolk, and his website can be found here : besselvanderkolk.net

 

David Hosier BSC Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

Often Aggressive? Is Your Sensorimotor System Primed To Deal With Threat?

sensorimotor system

Are You Easily Provoked Into Angry And Aggressive Behavior?

After my mother threw me out of her house when I was thirteen years old and I was reluctantly taken in by my father and step-mother (which I have written about elsewhere in this site, so I won’t repeat the details), I was quickly labelled by my unwilling new custodians as ‘morose’ and ‘hostile ‘ (amongst other less than complimentary descriptors); whilst perhaps less than helpful, I am forced to confess that these two adjectives had not been applied to me wholly inaccurately.

Whilst I see now that my ‘moroseness’ and ‘hostility’ were directly symptomatic of my experiences during my early life (I have also written about this elsewhere), this basic inference was emphatically not drawn by my father and new wife. To them I was just a ‘bad’ child, possibly even ‘evil’ (my step-mother was intensely, pathologically religious and, soon after I moved in I recall, as vividly as if it were happening now, her shouting at me in some utterly indecipherable way and in no language I had ever heard before ; she was, in fact, speaking in what she believed, or pretended to believe and wanted me to believe, were ‘tongues’).

But back to my hostility, or, more accurately, to a consideration of individuals in general who are more than averagely  prone to hostile / aggressive / angry behavior.

If we, in our early lives, were habitually threatened and made to feel unsafe  by our parents / primary caregivers then, over time, our sensorimotor system may have become ‘primed for threat’ (this is the case because it would have been evolutionary adaptive for our distant ancestors).  In other words, it may have become highly sensitive and driven into overdrive in response to the smallest, perceived provocation.

This, in turn, means that as adults, when we perceive a threat that in any way reminds us (usually on an unconscious level) of our frightening childhood experiences (even though we are, objectively speaking, in no danger in the present)  our sensorimotor system is liable to become automatically activated (e.g. discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, increased adrenalin production, increased heart-rate, tensed muscles etc, all of which, in turn, stimulate emotional arousal) in such a way that we become, whether we like it or not, disproportionately and inappropriately aggressive.

Such behavior is automatic and beyond conscious control because when such reminders of past dangers occur (often called ‘flashbacks’), cognitive processing is inhibited (i.e. our rational thinking processes essentially ‘shut down’) and we become devoid of the reasoning capacity necessary to realize that we are, at the present time, in fact, safe.

Instead of realizing we are safe, we automatically become hyperaroused and experience strong impulses to lash out verbally or even physically). This can be regarded, as far as our unconscious motivation is concerned) asdefensive aggression‘ ; we are overtaken by a desperate need to ensure we are not hurt again in the way we were hurt as children (I stress again that  we often will not be consciously aware that this is the driving force behind our overly aggressive and hostile reactions).

For survivors of childhood trauma, such automatic responses can cause myriad problems including frequent, destructive, impulsive behavior. This can lead to individual to feel profoundly ashamed and to see him/herself as seriously, psychologically flawed, unstable and often incapable of rational reflection, unaware of the underlying problem : how his/her sensorimotor system has been, due to early-life trauma, conditioned (now maladaptively) to operate.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Stress Related Disorders.

Stress can be defined as the perception that the psychological demands being made upon us exceed our ability to cope with them. It has been well documented that the experience of stress (especially chronic stress) is linked to both physical and psychological disorders.

Sometimes, if the stress experienced is very severe, such as in the case of suffering protracted childhood trauma, the condition of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop. For example, research carried out by Donovan et al., (1996) found that childhood physical punishment was strongly associated with the later development of PTSD.

Indeed, childhood trauma in general (be it sexual, emotional, physical, or a combination of these) very significantly increases the probability of developing PTSD later in life – one of the reasons for this is that such adverse early experience can greatly lower our later ability to cope with stress. Thus, as well as being badly affected by stress in childhood, we are also, as a consequence, then far more vulnerable to the effects of stress in adulthood.

Siegel (1996) identified three specific categories of symptoms of PTSD; these are :

A) INTRUSIVE SYMPTOMS (e.g flashbacks, preoccupation with trauma related thoughts which are extremely hard to dispel from the mind)

B) EMOTIONAL NUMBING (e.g the inability to experience feelings of pleasure – this is formally referred to as ANHEDONIA)

C) HYPERAROUSAL (extreme and uncontrollable responses – for example, the startle response – to trauma related stimuli)

REASONS WHY HYPNOTHERAPY MAY BE OF PARTICULAR BENEFIT TO SUFFERERS OF PTSD :

Hypnotherapy may be particularly beneficial for those who suffer from PTSD due to the fact that there is an analogy between the above three types of symptoms and the three major components of hypnosis. The three components of hypnosis which are analogous to A, B and C above are :

A) ABSORPTION

B) DISSOCIATION

C) SUGGESTIBILITY

Let’s look at why the analogy exists in relation to A, B and C :

A) Because those with PTSD have deeply absorbed their traumatic experiences, it is likely, too, that they will be able to effectively absorb information provided to them whilst in hypnosis

B) Emotional numbing is a form of dissociation (you can read my article on dissociation by clicking here). As hypnotic trance is also a form of dissociation, it is likely that PTSD sufferers will be easily able to enter into the hypnotic trance state

C) Hyperarousal involves heightened responsiveness. This suggests that those who suffer from PTSD will be highly responsive to therapeutic hypnotic suggestions.

HOW ELSE CAN HYPNOTHERAPY HELP THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM PTSD?

Hypnotherapy can help the individual with PTSD to DISTANCE THEMSELVES and DECENTRE from the immediacy of their traumatic experiences.

Also, hypnotic suggestions can be given that help the individual restructure and modify the memory of the trauma in a way that makes it less distressing

Furthermore, it can reduce, or eliminate, any feelings of self-blame the individual may have in connection with their trauma.

THE TELESCOPE TECHNIQUE :

The telescope technique is sometimes used to help individuals recover from PTSD : under hypnosis,  the client is instructed to imagine ‘viewing’ his/her trauma through the wrong end of a telescope – using this mental image, the client is told s/he can increase the length of the telescope to make the trauma ‘look’ yet more distant and tiny. The client practises this technique, and variations of it, throughout several hypnotherapy sessions. Eventually, s/he will be able to apply the technique at will without the assistance of the hypnotherapist. Whilst the technique may sound a little facile, many have found such a technique, or techniques similar to it, can be highly effective at reducing feelings of anxiety and distress connected to the trauma.

RETURN HOME TO ABOUT CHILDHOOD TRAUMA RECOVERY

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)