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Traumatic Memory : Flashbacks, Fragments, Nightmares And Repression

Flashbacks are hallmark features of both PTSD and complex PTSD. Remembering traumatic events is in some ways beneficial. For example, it allows us to review the experience and learn from it. Also, by replaying the events, their emotional charge is diminished. However, sometimes the process breaks down and the memories remain powerful and frightening. Sometimes …

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Failure Of Information Processing At Core Of PTSD

Research suggests (for examples, see below) that traumatic memories are not stored in the normal way (this theory was initially proposed by the psychologist and philosopher Pierre Janet) but non-linguistically as feelings/emotions and sensations (e.g. images, sounds, smells). This means that they cannot be properly articulated nor integrated into the individual’s personal narrative (story) in a …

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Responding and Adjusting to the Effects of Trauma : Five Stages

    One of the world’s leading experts on the effects of traumatic experience is the psychologist Mardi Horowitz, and it is he who proposed the five-stage model of how we respond and adjust to traumatic experience. The five stages that Horowitz describes are as follows : HOROWITZ’S FIVE STAGE MODEL OF HOW WE RESPOND …

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