Tag Archives: Dependent Personality Disorder

Personality Disorders Often Existing Simultaneously Alongside BPD

personality_disorders

If, as adults, we have been unfortunate enough to develop the condition known as borderline personality disorder (BPD), a very serious mental health problem  that those who have suffered severe and protracted  childhood trauma are at much higher risk than average of developing, it is quite possible that we have also developed other personality disorders that exist alongside it concurrently (or, more technically, COMORBIDLY).

Which Other Personality Disorders May Exist Comoridly With BPD?

According to Zananni et al. (1998, 2004b) the four personality disorders that are most likely to exist simultaneously alongside (comorbidly with) BPD are as follows :

  • Avoidant personality disorder (35-45℅)
  • Dependent personality disorder (30-40℅)
  • Paranoid personality disorder (20-30%)
  • Anti-social personality disorder (15-25℅)

(For those who are interested, there are eleven personality disorders in total).

The percentages given in brackets after each of the four personality disorders displayed above represent the chances of an individual having that particular personality disorder existing comorbidly alongside his/her BPD.

personality disorders

Why Is It Common For These Four Personality Disorders To Exist Comorbidly Alongside BPD?

  • Avoidant Personality Disorder : BPD sufferers are at risk of also suffering from this because, as children, they are likely to have felt threatened by, and been betrayed by, significant others leading them, as adults, to view people in general as potentially dangerous (to their emotional, or, even, physical wellbeing) and therefore best kept at a distance.
  • Dependent Personality Disorder : BPD sufferers are at risk of also suffering from this because they are likely to have grown up in an environment which caused them to fail to develop confidence in their own coping skills and to feel vulnerable, hopeless and helpless.
  • Paranoid Personality Disorder : BPD sufferers are at risk of also suffering from this because they are likely to have grown up being perpetually harmed by significant others and / or living with the constant fear that significant others may hurt them at any (unpredictable) moment (psychologically, physically or both).
  • Anti-social Personality Disorder : BPD sufferers are at risk of also suffering from this because, as children, they are likely to have lacked positive role models, been mistreated and abused leading to them, as adults, to have internalized few, if any,  positive values, to be distrustful, cynical, angry and resentful. Such feelings can then be projected onto society as a whole and ‘dog -eat-dog’ / ‘every-man-for-himself’ / ‘look-after-number one-because-nobody-else-will’ / ‘everyone -is-essentially-selfish-and-will-ultimately-betray-you’  and nihilistic view of the world may develop.

RESOURCE :

BPD_eBook

Above eBook now available for immediate download from Amazon. Click here for further details.

David Hosier BSc  Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD).

cropped-cropped-childhood-trauma-fact-sheet1.png

BASIC DESCRIPTION OF DPD SUFFERER :

Dependent personality disorder (DPD) affects about 0.5% of the population and is more commonly found in women than in men. Those who suffer from it greatly fear separation and abandonment by those who look after them; also, they have an excessive reliance upon others, constantly seeking reassurance, advice and care from them. In everyday language, such people are often described as being ‘clingy’.

The person suffering from DPD feels a deeply pervasive sense of being essentially helpless and of being utterly unable to cope with life’s demands on their own, rather as if they were still a young child.

download (1).jpgpppp

AVOIDANCE OF RESPONSIBILITIES :

Because of such beliefs and feelings, the DPD sufferer will very much tend to avoid any responsibility – domestically, socially or professionally. If s/he is unexpectedly faced with responsibilities, s/he is likely to feel anxious, panicked and overwhelmed.

dependent_personality_disorder

AFFECT OF DPD UPON RELATIONSHIPS :

Symptoms of DPD will also affect the individual’s approach to relationships. S/he will tend to only form relationships with those who are caring, nurturing and protective towards him/her, and attempt, desperately, to hold on to such relationships.

ARE THE CAUSES OF DPD KNOWN?

The causes of DPD are not fully understood. However, the current state of scientific knowledge suggests that those who suffer from DPD might have inherited a neurological predisposition towards ANXIETY and PESSIMISM which makes them vulnerable to developing DPD or other psychiatric conditions. It has been hypothesized that if, in addition, the person grows up in an environment which maintains or increases this tendency to feel anxiety and pessimism, and stifles the development of independence and self-reliance, the risk of the later development of DPD is significantly increased.

dependent_personality_disorder

DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) LIST OF SYMPTOMS OF DPD :

– difficulty making decisions and excessive need for advice and reassurance from others

– needs others to take responsibility for major areas of their life

– difficulty disagreeing with others due to fear of abandonment or cessation of support

– problems undertaking tasks under own initiative due to lack of confidence and self-belief

– will go to extreme lengths in order to elicit the support of others

– fears being alone as believes won’t be able to cope on own

– if there is a loss of a supportive relationship, will desperately seek to replace it with similar relationship

– excessive fear of abandonment

Above list of symptoms adapted from DSM IV.

POSSIBLE TREATMENTS :

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one treatment option which can be effective at treating DPD (click here to read my article on CBT). Also, it is sometimes treated with anti-depressants and sedatives to help address the negative thinking and anxiety connected to the condition. The two treatments of CBT and medication may be used in conjunction with one another.

DISCLAIMER : Always consult an appropriate professional regarding diagnosis of a psychiatric condition, as well as for advice as to the best treatment options for the particular individual.

 

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Personality Disorder Clusters and Severity Questionnaire

personality questionnaire

It has been often stated in my posts that personality disorders are often linked to traumatic childhoods. I have already described several personality disorders, but I would like to introduce you to some we have not met before. I also wish to introduce the psychiatric concept of clusters.

There are very many personality disorders, but many of them have overlaps and symptoms in common. Due to this fact, for the purposes of diagnosis, they have been split into 3 groups, or families, which psychiatric professionals refer to as CLUSTERS.

THE 3 CLUSTERS OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS :

1) CLUSTER 1 – ODD and ECCENTRIC.

2) CLUSTER 2 – DRAMATIC, EMOTIONAL and ERRATIC

3) CLUSTER 3 – ANXIOUS and FEARFUL (also termed ANAKASTIC)

Let’s look at each of these in turn :

CLUSTER1. ODD and ECCENTRIC :

a ) PARANOID – suspicious, tends to hold grudges, feels easily rejected, believes others are being unpleasant to him/her even when there is no evidence

b) SCHIZOID – emotionally cold, prefers own company, has a rich fantasy world

c) SCHIZOTYPAL – eccentric, has strange/bizarre ideas, has difficulties with thinking, lacking in emotional responses or displaying inappropriate emotional responses, hears and/or sees things which are not there (hallucinates)

CLUSTER 2. DRAMATIC, EMOTIONAL and ERRATIC :

a) ANTISOCIAL – not concerned with the feelings of others, easily frustrated, aggressive, prone to committing crimes, finds intimate relationships problematic, impulsive, feels little guilt, unable to learn from bad experiences

b) BORDERLINE/EMOTIONALLY UNSTABLE – Click here.

c) HISTRIONIC – over dramatic, self-centered, has intense, but fleeting, emotions, can be suggestible, worries about appearance, can be seductive

d) NARCISSISTIC – Click here

CLUSTER 3. ANXIOUS AND FEARFUL (also termed ANAKASTIC)

a) OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE – worries a lot, perfectionist (eg need to keep checking things), rigid ways of behaving, worries about doing the wrong thing, finds it hard to adapt to new situations, high moral standards, judgmental, sensitive to criticism

b) AVOIDANT – anxious and tense, worries a lot, feels insecure and inferior, strong need to be liked and accepted, extremely sensitive to criticism

c) DEPENDENT – passive, relies on others to make decisions for him/her, does what others want him/her to do, finds it hard to cope with daily chores, feels hopeless and incompetent, easily feels abandoned.

 

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)