Tag Archives: Anger

Theories Concerning BPD And Anger

causes of anger

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) And Anger :

As we have seen from numerous other articles that I have published on this site, those who suffered significant and chronic childhood trauma are at much increased risk of developing borderline personality disorder (BPD) in their adult lives compared to those who were fortunate enough to grow up in relatively stable, non-threatening, loving and nurturing families.

And, as we have also seen, one of the most common and predominant features of BPD is intense feelings of rage and anger which are difficult to control, particularly in stressful situations (even situations which others may perceive as non-stressful or only very mildly stressful).

causes of anger

Theories Relating To Anger :

There are various theories which seek to cast light upon the origins of such feelings of aggression ; four main such theories are as follows :

  • psychoanalytic theory
  • behavioral theory
  • cognitive theory
  • neurobiological theory

Let’s briefly look at each of these in turn :

  • PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY :

FRUSTRATED NEEDS :

Early psychoanalytic theorists attributed the source of anger in the child to deep feelings of frustration caused by not having their fundamental needs met (including unsatisfactory breast-feeding).

‘AN EXCESSIVE NATURE OF PRIMARY AGGRESSION’ :

The psychoanalyst, Otto Kernberg (b. 1929), who carried out important early research into the borderline personality, was one of the first to suggest that temperament (individual differences in personal traits that are biologically / genetically based and relatively independent of the influence of learning) may play a significant role in the development of the adult BPD sufferer’s propensity to be easily moved to feelings and expressions of intense anger. Kernberg referred to those with such temperaments as possessing ‘an excessive nature of primary aggression.’

  • BEHAVIORAL THEORY :

EMOTIONALLY WITHOLDING ENVIRONMENT :

Linehan, an expert in borderline personality disorder (BPD) who devised the therapy for the condition known as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), proposes the idea that aggression in BPD sufferers has its roots in the individual growing up in an ‘emotionally witholding environment‘ thus thwarting the child’s need to have his/her fundamental emotional needs met.

  • COGNITIVE THEORY :

ANGER AS A DEFENSE AGAINST REAL / IMAGINED / ANTICIPATED EXPLOITATION :

According to cognitive theory, one of the main functions of anger is to operate as a defense (a defense which has been unconsciously learned in early life to protect one in a threatening environment) against real or imagined exploitation (e.g. because a parent has used,,  taken advantage of  and manipulated the individual as a child).

  • NEUROBIOLOGICAL THEORY :

ABNORMALITIES IN THE BRAIN’S LIMBIC SYSTEM :

PET (positron emission tomography) scans have revealed that those individuals who have significant problems in connection with their feelings of anger and have histories of aggressive behavior can show abnormalities in the brain region known as the LIMBIC SYSTEM, or, more specifically, in the amygdala and hypothalamus (these are both sub-components of the limbic system) as well as abnormalities in the brain’s prefrontal cortex).

SEROTONIN :

Various research studies have also revealed that impulsive aggressiveness in individuals with BPD is associated with abnormally low levels of serotonin (a neurotransmitter) in the brain.

RESOURCE :

Anger Management Hypnosis | Self Hypnosis Downloads

eBook :

childhood anger ebook

Above eBook now available for immediate download from Amazon. Click here for further information.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

How Holding On To Chronic Anger Can Harm Us.

chronic_anger

I remained angry at my parents for a very long time indeed. I would repress it for lengthy periods, but it was always lying dormant, waiting for a trigger that would cause it to erupt. My outbursts of rage,therefore, were intermittent, and would tend to occur at times and of exceptionally intense stress or when they behaved in a rejecting way that resonated too painfully with my memories of how they rejected and discarded me in my youth.

Being chronically angry, apart from anything else, is a very destructive and emotionally distressing frame of mind to endure – it is also highly mentally enervating  and exhausting, sapping one’s energy and, often, too, spoiling one’s quality of sleep. These effects can combine to lead to a state of constant exhaustion.

Many people who were mistreated by their parents as children harbour anger, hostility and resentment towards them for years or decades. Some hold on to these destructive feelings even after their parents are dead; indeed, not only may these feelings not abate once their parents are dead, they may even intensify. This may give rise to feelings of guilt and shame, too, about not being able to free themselves from their anger.

Anger

As I’ve already suggested above, such deep rooted and pervasive anger often impacts on many areas of the angry person’s life in very harmful ways. I provide examples of how this may happen below:

– displacement of anger onto innocent victims when anger is not being directed at the parents. This may lead, frequently, to getting into conflict with other relatives, friends, work colleagues, service providers etc. and always seeing the worst in people. Often, the angry person will not be consciously aware that the anger s/he is expressing is displaced anger.

– quick to condemn those one perceives as having done something wrong/immoral and to then dismiss them as a ‘terrible person’

– gain a reputation for being an angry, judgmental, censorious and unforgiving person, even when this isn’t the ‘real you’

– loss of capacity to experience joy or pleasure in life

– a proneness to express moral outrage

– a marked tendency to be critical about everyone and everything

– strong need to feel morally superior in relation to others

– development of a ‘me against the world’ approach to life

– feelings of hatred for others easily triggered

– general misanthropic attitude towards world

– fantasies of revenge

– regard self us utterly innocent victim, persecuted relentlessly by moral inferiors and idiots

– perpetual demeanor of resentment and bitterness which alienates others

– regard self as ‘judge and jury’ when it comes to assessing moral character of others and as omniscient and infallible in one’s ‘god-like’ judgments

Resources:

Useful link about dealing with anger. Click here.

MP3

hypnotherapy_anger

Advanced self- Hypnosis audio MP3 – click here for more details

 

eBook:

anger management

Above eBook now available from Amazon for instant download. Cliçk here.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

Effects Of Parents Treating Their Children With Contempt

what is contempt?

A particularly devastating form of emotional abuse is when parents or primary caregivers treat their children with contempt.

Psychologists define contempt as a blend of two primary human emotions – anger and disgust. Acting contemptuously towards an individual also entails treating him/her as a much inferior being (eg. intellectually, morally).

Sometimes this contemptuous treatment may be relatively subtle and insidious, perhaps involving making, on the surface, seemingly neutral remarks but delivering such remarks in a condescending tone, perhaps with a slight, barely perceptible, smug, superior and self-satisfied sneer or smirk.

contempt

Or, at other times, the expression of contempt may be flagrant and overt; at such times, the parent may take a sadistic delight in humiliating their child.

When a child is treated in such a way, his/her morale, sense of worth and confidence are gradually eroded away and destroyed.

Why Do Some Parents Treat Their Children With Contempt?

Often such parents are narcissists who have a powerful need to make themselves feel ‘superior to’, ‘above’ and ‘better’ than others.

Many psychotherapists regard people who feel the need to treat others with contempt as employing a psychological defense mechanism that protects them from facing up to their own repressed feelings of shame, unworthiness and inferiority – in other words, they DENY these feelings about themselves, and PROJECT them on to others.

However, the child, of course, does not realize the parent is behaving as s/he does due to his/her own buried feelings of inferiority and is therefore very likely to end up internalizing the parent’s contemptuous attitude to him/ her.

Treatment

If, when we were growing up, we internalized our parents’ negative and contemptuous attitude towards us, and, now, as adults, and as a result, have come to see ourselves as ‘of little worth’, ‘inferior’, ‘unlovable’ etc, therapy may be necessary in order to rid ourselves of such erroneous beliefs. There is evidence to suggest that, in this regard, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) may be of particular benefit.

More Information On CBT: click here.

Resource:

Overcoming An Inferiority Complex Self Hypnosis Audio MP3. Click here.

eBook:

emotional abuse

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)