Category Archives: Novel Preview

Those Bullied as Children More Likely to Commit Crime as Adults.

bullying and crime

Bullying and its link to crime

Recent research has demonstrated that individuals who are bullied as children are more likely to get convictions for committing crimes in later life and are more likely to end up in jail.

In the study, the individuals were split into 4 groups :

1) Those who had been bullied as children (under the age of 12 years)

2) Those who had been bullied as teens (over the age of 12 years)

3) Those who had suffered bullying throughout both their childhood and their teens

4) Those who had not been bullied.

FINDINGDS :

– 9% from group 1 experienced prison as adults

– 7% from group 2 experienced prison as adults

– 14% from group 3 experience prison as adults

– 6% from group 4 experienced prison as adults

FURTHER FINDINGS :

– 16% from group 1 had at least one conviction

– 11% from group 2 had at least one conviction

– 20% from group 3 had at least one conviction

– 11% from group 4 had at least one conviction

A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EFFECTS OF BULLYING ON FEMALES VERSUS MALES :

The study also found that females who had experienced bullying both as children and as teens (ie from group 3) were significantly more likely to have alcohol addictions, drug addictions, a history of arrest and convictions than their male counterparts who had also suffered bulling as both children and teens (ie also from group 3).

CONCLUSIONS DRAWN FROM THE STUDY :

It was concluded that health care professionals need to intervene to prevent bullying in the same way as parents, teachers and guardians should. It is suggested that children and teens need to be asked appropriate questions which try to uncover bullying as a routine part of medical check ups. There should also be programs in place to address both the causes and effects of bullying to reduce the likelihood of those who have been bullied coming into contact with the law in later life.

childhood_trauma_aggression_ebook

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Best wishes, David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

High Conflict Personality (HCP) Link to Child Trauma

childhood trauma and aggression

High Conflict Personality

Individuals who suffer from the condition of High Conflict Personality (HCP) will often have an underlying personality disorder which falls into the CLUSTER B range (dramatic, emotional and erratic). I have already written a short article about personality disorder clusters – if you would like to read it, please click here. It is quite possible, therefore, that the individual may also suffer from anti-social personality disorder, borderline personality disorder (BPD) or histrionic personality disorder.

Sometimes, however, the person with High Conflict Personality (HCP) may not obviously fall into any of these specific categories, in which case he or she may, instead, be diagnosed with what has been technically termed : ‘personality disorder not otherwise specified’.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF HIGH CONFLICT PERSONALITY (HCP)?

These include :

– feeling easily threatened

– tendency to see things in ‘black and white’ (eg ‘good’ or ‘bad’)

– generally untrusting

– tends to view self as victim

– tends to be controlling

highly emotional

highly aggressive

– has marked difficulty accepting blame

– finds it hard to see things from others’ points of view/perspective

– reluctance to take responsibility

– frequently initiates/escalates conflict

– conflict tends to be a very prominent feature of their relationships

– marked tendency to blame others

Often, High Conflict Personality (HCP) is used as a descriptive term rather than as a formal diagnosis.

How Can High Conflict Personality (HCP) Be Treated?

At present, the main treatments are :

– cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) ; click here to read my article on this

– dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) ; click here to read my article on this

– neurofeedback

hypnotherapy

To download a hypnotherapy audio for ANGER CONTROL  click here.

Dvid Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Intermittent Explosive Disorder (I.E.M.) and Childhood Trauma.

childhood trauma and anger

This disorder, which is listed in the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), a manual which is used by psychologists and psychiatrists to diagnose mental illness and provides the diagnostic criteria (ie relevant symptoms) by which diagnosis of the specific psychiatric condition is made, is, as the name implies, related to problems a person has with controlling his/her anger.

anger

According to the DSM, the symptoms of IED are as follows :

1) Several episodes of being unable to suppress impulses of intense anger which leads to serious aggressive acts such as assault and destruction of property

2) The high intensity of the aggression displayed during these episodes is clearly out of proportion to the precipitating event (ie the event that triggered the aggression)

3) The episodes of aggression are not better explained by other mental conditions such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) or anti-social personality disorder.

HOW COMMON IS IED IN THE GENERAL POPULATION?

Research into this area so far suggests that around 5% of the population may suffer from IED during some period of their life-span. Not infrequently, the disorder first appears during adolescence.

Often, too, the disorder will exist co-morbidly (ie together with/alongside) other mental health conditions.

anger red face

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF IED?

IED can very adversely affect many crucial areas of the sufferer’s life, which include : relationships with family, relationships with friends, reputation, career prospects and even freedom (if the uncontrolled aggression results in an incident which leads to being sent to jail). Clearly, then, a person who suffers from IED urgently requires treatment in order to prevent him/her from potentially ruining his/her own life. But in order to treat it, of course, it is first necessary to understand what causes it. In relation to this quest, research has focused on childhood trauma.

WHAT HAS THIS RESEARCH SHOWN?

Research indicates that the experience of childhood trauma, particularly childhood trauma connected to problematic (ie dysfunctional) relationships with parents/carers is the strongest predictor of the development of IED in adulthood. It is thought that the reason for this is that, as a result of such trauma, the affected individual does not learn how to manage his/her emotions nor how to manage the intricacies of interpersonal relationships.

Neurological issues may also be related to IED ; however, I should point out that such issues may themselves have been caused by the childhood trauma – further research into this is necessary.

POSSIBLE THERAPIES FOR IED :

These include :

Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT). Click here for my article on this.

Trauma Focused CBT. Click here for my article on this.

RESOURCES:

ANGER MANAGEMENT MP3 – CLICK HERE

anger_management_ebook

Above eBook now available for instant download from Amazon. Other titles available. Click here.

David Hosier BSc Hons ; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Childhood Trauma : The Effects of Bullying

 

Being bullied when we were young can have long-lasting adverse effects, particularly if we were sensitive and socially anxious as children.

The form that bullying takes can be both overt (blatant and obvious) or much more subtle, The subtle forms of bullying are more difficult to detect, but they include :

– betraying a trust

– excuding people

– isolating people

– making unreasonable demands

– innuendo and gossip

– manipulation

When the above techniques are used to bully others, they will also be accompanied by a deliberate attempt to control and/or exclude the person on the receiving end of the bullying. Bullying also involves victimization, humiliation and intimidation.

EFFECTS OF BULLYING :

Bullying can create social anxiety or reinforce and exacerbate existing social anxiety. Five main areas it can affect in this regard are :

1) Effects on our beliefs

2) Effects on our attention

3) Effects on our behaviours

4) Effects on our self-consciousness

5) Effects on our assumptions.

Let’s look at each of these 5 types of effects in turn :

1) Effects on our beliefs – eg people cannot be trusted, I am unacceptable to others,  people will always exclude and reject me, I do not belong etc

2) Effects on our attention –  constantly and/or obsessively checking on how people are responding to us eg are they frownig? do they look bored? do they look irritated? etc. Often, this goes hand-in-hand with imagining a person disapproves of us when there is, in fact, no objective reason to suppose this

3) Effects on our behaviours  – eg excessive need for the approval of other, becoming withdrawn and ‘keeping ourselves to ourselves’, behaving according to expectations of others at  the cost of our own individuality

4) Effects upon self-consciousness excessive worry about how we behave/look/speak, excessive concern about offending others, easily embarrassed by even the smallest social error/indiscretion etc

5) Effects on our assumptions – eg living by the policy that, in social situations, ‘attack is the best form of defense’ leading to over-aggression towards others, the assumption that everyone will take advantage of us, the assumption that we must not get involved with anyone in a position of authority and influence etc

David Hosier BSc Hons ; MSc ; PGDE(FAHE).

The Link Between Childhood Trauma and Future Suicide Attempts.

child trauma and suicide

childhood trauma and risk of suicide attempts

Research has shown that the experience of childhood trauma and the risk of the individual who suffered it attempting suicide in later life (as a teenager or as an adult) are extremely strongly correlated.

A particular study, carried out by Dube et al (2001), which involved gathering data related to this issue, found that those most seriously affected by childhood trauma were a staggering 51 Xs (ie 5100%) at greater risk of suicide attempts as a teenager compared to those who had experienced a settled childhood.  As an adult they were found to be at 30Xs (ie 3000%) greater risk of attempting suicide compared to their more fortunate contempories.

Other findings in the study by Dube et al were that about 67% of adult suicide attempts were linked to the experience of childhood trauma, and, also, that about 80% of teenage suicide attempts were connected to the experience of childhood trauma.

THE SPECIAL ADVERSE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL ABUSE :

The same study also found that the type of abuse that was most strongly predictive of the individual who experienced it making suicide attempts in later life was emotional abuse.

OTHER TYPES OF ABUSE FOCUSED UPON BY THE STUDY :

Dube et al’s study also found many other types of abuse to be powerfully correlated with increased risk of suicide. These were :

– domestic violence

– loss of a parent (eg through divorce or abandonment)

– family member in prison

– parent with mental illness (eg depression

– parent with addiction

– physical neglect

– emotional neglect

– physical abuse

– verbal abuse

 

POSSIBLE ACTIONS TO TAKE IN LIGHT OF ABOVE FINDINGS :

Given the above facts, it is necessary to ask what may be done to address this tragic problem. I provide some suggestions below :

– more training for those who work with children about the effects of childhood trauma and how best to treat these effects

– more education to be given to the public in general about the effects of childhood trauma

– rather than expel or suspend ‘difficult’ children, schools should keep them in education and provide the appropriate counseling and/or other professional support

– respond more sensitively and compassionately to ‘problem behaviour’ (or, ‘acting out’) by young people, both in schools and other applicable environments.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).