HYPNOTHERAPY Archives - Childhood Trauma Recovery

Category Archives: Hypnotherapy

Hypnotherapy, including self hypnosis, can be a very effective method for addressing symptoms of childhood trauma, including anxiety, low self-esteem, fear of abandonment, intrusive thoughts and much else ; the articles in this section help to explain how and why.

Depression, Thinking Styles And Hypnotherapy

Hypnosis for Depression – Natural Treatment | Self Hypnosis Downloads : Try Introduction And First Module FREE.

We have seen from other articles published on this site that those who have experienced severe and protracted childhood trauma are, as adults, at an elevated risk of suffering from depression. We have also seen how hypnotherapy can benefit trauma survivors (in fact, research has shown that those suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are, overall, more responsive to hypnotherapy than is the average person).

Depression And How People Think :

Those who are depressed tend to be, quite understandably, self-focused and self-absorbed, not least because they are in a great deal of mental anguish and turmoil (just as anyone suffering from excruciating tooth ache will inevitably be self-focused and self-absorbed). This is why it is unfair to accuse those who experience this extremely serious condition as ‘choosing’ to be ‘selfish’.

Another very common feature of depression is that it causes the person who is suffering from it to (falsely) believe that there is no hope of recovery.

A third hallmark of depressive thinking is that the afflicted individual tends to be extremely focused on the past, as opposed to on the present or the future.

Fourth. depressive thinking tends to be ‘ruminative’ as opposed to ‘experiential’.

Ruminative thinking is generalized and abstract and involves dwelling on distressing matters ; depressive rumination has been defined as ‘thoughts that focus one’s attention on one’s depressive symptoms and their implications’ (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991). It is also decontextualized and self-evaluative. Such rumination has been found to be a major contributory factor to the onset of depression and its maintenance.

‘Experiential’ thinking, on the other hand, is specific to a current task being undertaken.

Traditionally, ‘rumination’ has been regarded as a negative style of thinking, whereas ‘experiential’ thinking has been regarded as positive. Herman et al., 2008 suggested that the tendency to over-generalize when indulging in ruminative thinking (e.g. by thinking things like : ‘I’ve never done anything right in my entire life’, or. ‘everybody has always hated me and always will’) is the strongest predictor of the severity and duration of depression, as well as of the likelihood of relapse ; in other words, the more prone one is to ruminative-style thinking, the worse, and longer lasting, one’s depression is likely to be ; furthermore, the greater one’s chances of relapsing after recovery are likely to be.

It is important, then, that we attempt to adopt a far more ‘experienttial’ style of thinking and keep to a minimum our negative, ruminating-style thinking if we wish to reduce our feelings of depression or to prevent ourselves from relapsing into further depressive episodes.

HOW HYPNOTHERAPY CAN HELP IN RELATION TO THE ABOVE :

Hypnotherapy can :

  • encourage us to think ‘experientially’ e.g by thinking about and planning achievable tasks and goals as well as motivating us to carry out such tasks
  • focus on the present and future rather than on the past
  • help us to feel more positive
  • reduce distressing, intrusive thoughts
  • help us to reduce dysfunctional, generalized thinking
  • reduce self-crticism
  • reduce the judgmental, internal dialogues we have with ourselves
  • increase our ability to recall traumatic memories without attributing to them self-blame
  • increase our ability to change out thinking style from ‘ruminative’ to ‘experiential.’
  • calm the brain’s amygdala which, in turn, puts us in a much better position to resolve traumatic events from the past.

RESOURCE :

If you are interested in how hypnosis can help with all of the above and much more, you may wish to visit the affiliated site, hypnosisdownloads.com, which I have used to aid my own recovery.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).


How Hypnosis Alters Brain Activity – Top University Study.

childhood_trauma_effects

Expert psychiatrists in the U.S. have shown that the effects of hypnosis can be measured scientifically (ie empirically measured).

A researcher from Stanford University in the United States, David Spiegel, took neuro-images (pictures of brain activity produced from brain scans) of individuals who had been hypnotized in an experiment which analyzed the effects of hypnosis on the physical brain.

In the experiment, the hypnotized individuals (who were all volunteers) were instructed by the experimenter to gaze at various objects. The objects were black and white ; however, the volunteers who had been hypnotized were given the hypnotic suggestion that the black and white objects they were gazing at were coloured (or ‘colored’, to use the American spelling of the word!)

Whilst the individuals were looking at the objects, having been given this hypnotic suggestion, the researchers took scans of their brain activity in order to produce the vital neuro-images which would show what was going on physically in their brains. The neuro-images (or brain scans) revealed that the areas of the brain which registered and processed colour (or color) were activated and had increased blood flow. In other words, the effect of the hypnotic suggestion on the volunteers’ brains led to them ‘seeing’ colours/colors even though the objects were only black and white. It can be inferred from this that hypnotic suggestion can literally change how the brain works.

Daniel Spiegel, the lead researcher in this impressive study, said :

‘This is scientific evidence that something happens in the brain when people are hypnotized that does not happen under normal circumstances…there are tremendous medical implications for people being able to use hypnosis for such things as managing their own pain and anxiety…

hypnosis neuro-imaging

Effect of hypnosis on brain is shown in this neuro-image

 

EXAMPLES OF HOW HYPNOSIS WORKS :

Below, I provide two, powerful examples that help to illustrate how hypnosis works :

I have written in other articles that have been published on this site about how hypnosis can help alleviate many adult psychological problems we may have connected to our experience of childhood trauma, such as anxiety, social anxiety, relationship problems feelings associated with rejection and feelings relating to having felt unloved as a child and aches and pains that have a psychosomatic basis (see below).
In this article I will briefly outline two impressive scientific experiments that demonstrate how hypnosis works and just how powerful the effects of hypnosis can be :

FIRST EXAMPLE OF THE POWER OF HYPNOSIS:

The first experiment was carried out by the researcher of hypnotic phenomenon, Ernest Hilgard, and relates to how people’s perception of pain can be altered.

The experiment involved participants placing their arm in a container filled with ice cold water.

The participants were split into 2 groups as follows:

GROUP 1: These participants had been hypnotized to increase their pain tolerance threshold.

GROUP 2: These participants formed the ‘control’ group (i.e. they had received no hypnosis to help them to withstand pain).

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT:

It was found that the participants in group 1 (who had received hypnosis) were able to keep their arms submerged in the ice cold water for a significantly longer time period than those in group 2 (who had received no such hypnosis).

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THESE FINDINGS:

Due to the power of hypnosis to lower our perception of pain, hypnotherapy can be very effectively used, for example, to:

– reduce dental pain

– reduce the pain experienced during childbirth

– help alleviate chronic pain conditions (such as arthritis)

SECOND EXAMPLE OF THE POWER OF HYPNOSIS:

The second experiment of interest involved an examination of how our beliefs can affect our bodily responses in extremely surprising ways.

The experiment focused upon individuals who were allergic to a certain kind of plant leaf. Under hypnosis they were given the posthypnotic suggestion that a leaf the experimenter was shortly going to rub on their hand was from the plant to which they were allergic.

In fact, though, this was intended deception; the leaf was completely harmless to them.

However, when this harmless leaf was rubbed on the back of their hands, because of the posthypnotic suggestion they actually developed an allergic reaction to it in the form of a rash, just as they would have done had the leaf been of the type to which they were actually were allergic.

THE POWER OF THE MIND-BODY CONNECTIION :

Both these experiments, and the applications of hypnotherapy also detailed above, serve to indicate the power of the mind-body connection, and how hypnosis is able to enhance its effect.

David Hosier BSc(Hons); MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

Benefits of Self-Hypnosis for Emotional Health.

Self-hypnosis may be achieved by creating one’s own hypnotherapy recordings (e.g on CDs or as MP3s)-  which I shall be explaining how to do well in later posts – or by using hypnotherapy CDs and MP3s which have already been developed by experienced, professional hypnotherapists who are expert in creating them.

THE HYPNOTIC STATE – The hypnotic state that the CD or MP3 creates is best understood as a natural, deep state of relaxation in which the individual becomes very mentally receptive to the beneficial, therapeutic suggestions which are also incorporated into the CD or MP3. These suggestions are referred to as post-hypnotic suggestions as the hypnotized individual only hears them once the hypnotic state has been induced – a state in which his/her unconscious mind can fully absorb them so that they have the maximum positive effect possible.

The two main effects of these post-hypnotic suggestions are to :

1) SPONTANEOUSLY CREATE HELPFUL AND BENEFICIAL BEHAVIOURS

2) FORM A NEW AND BENEFICIAL BELIEF SYSTEM (in relation to the particular problem or difficulty the individual is undertaking self-hypnosis for). The corollary of this is that harmful and damaging behaviors connected to the particular issue are reduced or else eliminated.

APPLICATIONS OF SELF-HYPNOSIS :

Hypnosis can be effectively applied to any problem area or difficulty in which the brain and central nervous system play a part. This means it can be used to treat an extremely wide range of conditions. Below I give just a few examples :

– problematic habits

anxiety

– confidence issues

– infertility

– memory enhancement

– pain management

– raising self-esteem

– performance issues

– managing anger

– phobias

– stopping smoking

– losing weight

FURTHER BENEFITS OF THE SELF-HYPNOSIS :

The great benefit of the hypnotic state is that, in it, the therapeutic post-hypnotic suggestions that are made are able to largely by-pass the conscious mind, and, therefore, be effectively absorbed by the unconscious mind and thus the greatest beneficial effect.

The deep state of relaxation induced by the hypnosis leads to the pulse and the metabolism slowing down and it is this that allows the unconscious mind to come to the forefront whilst the conscious mind, temporarily, takes a back seat, as it were. The hypnotherapy CD or MP3 will have primed the unconscious to deeply absorb the positive, therapeutic post-hypnotic suggestions.

The reason why by-passing, as much as possible, the conscious mind is of such paramount importance is  that it is therefore prevented from throwing up critical, self-sabotaging thoughts (the often over-analytical and over-critical conscious mind loves to throw up problems and create anxieties which often prevents us from dealing with our problems effectively).

By by-passing the conscious mind, and. thus, accessing the unconscious mind, a different way of viewing our problems can be achieved ; one that our conscious mind, hitherto, had prevented us from taking. This enables us to finally take control of our problems, as opposed to allowing them to control and dominate us. In other words, we gain a NEW, EMPOWERING PERSPECTIVE – we are no longer impotent in the face of our problems. Psychologists call this shift of perspective that takes place under hypnosis as REFRAMING, and I will revisit this exciting phenomenon in later posts.

 

RETURN HOME TO ABOUT CHILDHOOD TRAUMA RECOVERY

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Childhood Trauma : Treatment by Hypnosis Combined with Other Therapies.

Hypnosis And Childhood Trauma :

Although hypnosis has been used for a very long time to treat the effects of trauma (for example, it was used effectively to treat soldiers who were traumatized by their experiences in both World War One and World War Two), in the 1990s its use became controversial and misunderstood. This was due to the fact that there had been some cases in which hypnosis was used to try to recover painful memories which traumatized indivduals were thought to have buried in their unconscious.

Recovered Memories :

However, it was later found out that these ‘recovered memories’ were false. Despite this setback and because far more care is now taken in considerations of whether hypnosis should be used in an attempt to recover memories, hypnosis is enjoying something of a renaissance. It is increasingly being argued that hypnotherapy can be very effective in the treatment of trauma, especially in relation to facilitating the individual’s processing of (genuine) traumatic memories. Many believe that it is necessary for traumatized individuals to process their traumatic memories properly in order to gain relief from the anxiety they cause. Indeed, hypnotherapy is being increasingly used by adult survivors of childhood trauma.

Dissociation :

One particular benefit of the use of hypnosis in the treatment of trauma is that it can give rise to feelings of DISSOCIATION which can help an individual protect him/herself from the full impact of the shock which would otherwise have been caused by the particular traumatic event which has occurred. It is a flexible therapy and is being used in innovative ways.

There is some debate about whether hypnosis should be seen as a treatment in its own right, or whether it should more accurately be seen as a procedure which, used in combination with other therapies, can augment the positive effects of those therapies.

The debate has not been fully resolved, but hypnosis is increasingly being used as an ADJUNCT to other therapies, enhancing their effectiveness. For example, hypnotherapy is now used effectively in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to give a therapy called cognitive hypnotherapy. It has also been used in combination with psychodynamic therapy (known as psychodynamic hypnotherapy). Initial results are encouraging and research is ongoing.

Resource :

Overcome A Troubled Childhood – Click here for further details.

 

RETURN HOME TO ABOUT CHILDHOOD TRAUMA RECOVERY

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

The Use of Hypnosis to Treat Trauma.

Research has shown that hypnosis can be of benefit for individuals suffering from trauma related conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Hypnosis is not used in isolation to treat such conditions, but in conjunction with other therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy.

Research studies have demonstrated that the use of hypnosis as part of the therapy for trauma based conditions can be particularly effective in:

– reducing the intensity and frequency of intrusive, distressing thoughts and nightmares
– decreasing avoidance behaviours (ie avoidance of situations which remind the individual under treatment of the original trauma)
– reducing the intensity and frequency of the mental re-experiencing the trauma
– reducing anxiety, hyper-vigilance and hyper-arousal that the trauma has caused
– helping the individual to psychologically INTEGRATE the memory of trauma in a way which reduces symptoms of dissociation (I have written a post on dissociation which some of you may like to look at)
– helping the individual to develop more adaptive coping strategies

On top of the above benefits, the use of hypnosis has been shown to be very likely to improve the therapeutic relationship between the individual undergoing treatment and the therapist.

However, it is not recommended that hypnosis be used to ‘recover buried memories of trauma’ as this has been shown to be unreliable and it is also likely that the use of hypnosis for this purpose can create FALSE MEMORIES in the person being treated.

Some individuals have been significantly helped by the use of hypnosis as part of their therapy for trauma related conditions such as PTSD in as little as just a few sessions. As one would expect, however, the more complex the trauma related condition is, the longer that effective treatment for it is likely to take.

 

Hypnosis And ‘Buried Memories

A central tenet of psychodynamic theory is that some traumatic memories are so painful that they are buried (repressed) in the unconscious (automatically rather than deliberately) denying us direct access to them (though it has been theorized indirect access may be available through dreams and other phenomena).

One theory is that these buried memories need to be brought into full consciousness via the psychotherapeutic process and properly ‘worked through’ in order to alleviate the psychological symptoms associated with their hitherto repression.

It is frequently believed, including by therapists, that ‘buried traumatic memories’ can be accessed by hypnosis. But can they? What does the research tell us?

In one study, 70% of first year psychology students agreed with the statement that hypnosis can help to access repressed memories. More worryingly, 84% of psychologists were also found to believe the same thing. It comes as little surprise, then, that many therapists use hypnosis in an attempt to help their clients recover ‘repressed traumatic memories’. Indeed, the therapy, known as ‘hypnoanalysis’, was developed on the theory that ‘repressed traumatic memories’ could be accessed by hypnosis to cure the patient of his/her psychological ailment.

Surveys of the general public indicate that many of them, too, believe in the power of hypnosis to aid memory recall.

Whilst some contemporary researchers still hold to the belief that hypnosis aids recall, the majority now believe this is NOT the case. On the contrary, hypnosis has generally been found to IMPAIR and DISTORT recall (eg. Lynnet, 2001).

Furthermore, studies reveal that hypnosis can CREATE FALSE MEMORIES (see my post on memory repression for more detail on the question of the reality of concept of buried memories) which, due to the insidious influence of the therapist, the patient can become very confident are real.

This is of particular concern if the hypnosis has been used to try to help an eye-witness or crime victim recall ‘forgotten details’ of the crime and this evidence is then presented before a court of law. Indeed, as the problem becomes increasingly recognized, such ‘hypnotically recovered evidence’ is becoming increasingly unlikely to be admissible.

Some therapists use hypnosis to age-regress their adult clients (i.e. take them back ‘mentally’ to their childhoods) in an attempt to help them recall important events that occurred in their childhood which may be connected to their current psychological state. However, here, too, research suggests (e.g. Nash, 1987) such attempts are of no real value.

CONCLUSION:

Hypnosis does not appear to be useful for retrieving ‘buried memories’ and can, in fact, be utterly counter-productive by creating FALSE or DISTORTED memories.

How Hypnosis CAN Help Those Who Have

Suffered From Childhood Trauma :

However, hypnosis can help with many psychological conditions that those who have suffered childhood trauma may suffer from and I outline examples some of these below :

ANXIETY :

If we suffered significant and protracted trauma during our childhoods, we are far more likely than those who were fortunate enough to have experienced a relatively stable and secure upbringing (all else being) to develop severe anxiety and associated conditions in adulthood.

We feel anxiety when we perceive a threat (and the threat may be real or imagined).

Our perception of being under threat causes stress hormones, such as adrenalin and cortisol, to be released into the brain.

The release of these stress hormones into the body can result in distressing physical sensations; these differ depending upon the particular individual concerned and include the following (to list just a few examples):

headaches

– stomach aches

– dry mouth

– trembling

– heart palpitations

– sweating

– feeling faint/dizziness

hyperventilation

Vicious Cycle:

These physical symptoms of stress form part of a vicious cycle; this viscous cycle is caused by the various aspects of stress feeding off one another as I describe below:

1) Anxious thoughts lead to the production of stress hormones such as adrenalin and cortisol

2) These stress hormones produce physical symptoms in the body which exacerbate anxious thoughts

3) These further anxious thoughts then cause yet more stress hormones to flood the brain…and, thus, the vicious cycle continues

How Do You Break This Vicious Cycle?

In order to break this vicious cycle, a component of it needs to be broken so that the elements it is made up of can no longer feed off one another. Using hypnosis for anxiety therapy can do this in different ways, for example:

– the excessive production of stress hormones flooding the brain can be halted using self hypnosis techniques such as calming imagery/visualisation.

OR:

anxious thoughts can be reduced under hypnosis. This can be achieved in many ways, two of which I describe below:

Two ways to use hypnosis for anxiety :

1) The ‘Helium Voice’ technique:

Under hypnosis the individual is given the post hypnotic suggestion that when s/he has self-critical thoughts during internal dialogues (i.e. negative, introspective, mentally internal self-talk) the ‘voice’ of these thoughts will sound squeaky and high-pitched (as happens when a person inhales helium from a balloon), thus rendering them ridiculous and robbing them of any credibility (whilst this sounds silly, it can be remarkably effective).

2) The ‘Compassionate Friend’ Technique:

To simplify: under hypnosis, the individual is given the post hypnotic suggestion that when s/he has negative, anxiety producing thoughts s/he will be able to imagine what an ideal compassionate friend would say in response to them in order to comfort and reassure, so it becomes rather like having a tiny personal counsellor taking up residence in one’s head!

And, finally, many readers will already be aware that mindfulness meditation is often an extremely effective way of coping with stress and anxiety, though requires practice.

DEPRESSION :

We have seen from many other articles that I have published on this site that those of us who have suffered significant childhood trauma are at increased risk of developing depression (as well as many other psychiatric conditions) in adulthood than those who had relatively happy and stable childhoods (all else being equal).

One method that can help to reduce feelings of depression, especially when used in conjunction with other therapies such as pharmacology and psychotherapy, is self-hypnosis.

One of the main prevailing theories of the cause of depression is that it arises due to imbalances in certain brain chemicals (called neurotransmitters), in particular serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine.

What Is The Function Of These Brain Chemicals?

 – Serotonin is thought to be involved with appetite, digestion, social behaviour, sexual desire, sexual function, sleep, memory and mood.

 – Norepinephrine is thought to be involved with the body’s fight or flight’ response.

 – Dopamine is thought to play a very important role in internal reward-motivated behaviour (e.g. the pleasurable feelings generated by sex or a large gambling win).

In order to attempt to correct this chemical imbalance, and thus alleviate depressive symptoms, medications are frequently prescribed. Unfortunately, however, not everyone finds them effective.

Hypnosis For Depression :

Another way to alter the brain’s chemical balance in those suffering from depression, research has shown, is by self-suggestion, as used in self-hypnosis, and by altering a person’s level of expectancy regarding their recovery (which plays a major role, of course, in the placebo effect); both of these phenomena have their foundations in the well known phenomenon of  mind-body connection.

Indeed, self-hypnosis for depression (utilizing self-suggestion) combined with cognitive behavioral therapy and/or drug therapy may be a particularly effective way of alleviating depressive symptoms.

A meta-analysis of hypnosis for the treatment of depression (Shih et al.) found that it significantly reduced depressive symptoms and concluded that it was ‘ a viable non-pharmacological intervention for depression.

Commonly, too, depression co-exists alongside anxiety, and numerous studies (e.g. see Hammond) suggest hypnosis and self-hypnosis are often particularly effective for treating anxiety related conditions such as headaches and irritable bowel syndrome.

Depression can also be exacerbated by loneliness or due to poor relationships with significant others (an illustrative example of this is that, on average, married people are significantly less likely (some research suggests up to 70% less likely) to suffer from depression compared with their non-married counterparts; here, again, self-hypnosis can be of use in order to assist us to  improve our interpersonal relationships by, for example, helping to repair our disrupted unconscious processes, allowing us to be more able to give and receive love/affection, making us less withdrawn, and reducing tendencies to judge ourselves and others in an overly negative manner.

 

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) :

According to the psychologist, Spiegel, self-hypnosis can be a useful tool to help individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) overcome problems associated with the troubling symptom of disturbing, intrusive memories of the original trauma.

Spiegel states that self-hypnosis may be particularly useful because certain qualities of the hypnotic experience have much in common with qualities of the experience of the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), examples of which include :

– a feeling of reliving the traumatic event

– feelings of dissociation (detachment from reality)

– hypersensitivity to stimuli

– a disconnection between cognitive and emotional experience

Spiegel argues that this similarity between hypnotic phenomena and the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) make sufferers of this most serious and disturbing disorder more hypnotizable than the average member of any given randomly selected population.

It follows from this that those suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be particularly likely to be helped by the utilization of hypnotic techniques and procedures, particularly ‘coupling access to dissociative traumatic memories with positive restructuring of those memories’ (Spiegel et al., 1990). By this statement, Spiegel is suggesting that hypnosis could help bring traumatic memories more fully into conscious awareness and alter the way in which they are stored in memory by associating / pairing / linking them with feelings of safety (such as the feeling of being safe and protected in the therapist’s consulting room) rather than, as had previously been the case, high levels of distress.

In this way, Spiegel suggests, when these previously disturbing memories are recalled in the future, because they are now associated / paired / linked with feelings of safety, they cease to induce distress.

In effect, then, the traumatic memories have become positively recontextualized  and deprived of their previous power to induce feelings of fear, anxiety and terror.

WHY PTSD SUFFERERS MAY BE MORE

HYPNOTIZABLE THAN THE AVERAGE

PERSON :

Those suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder display an array of distressing symptoms including flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive thoughts, insomnia, hypervigilence and hypersensitivity to stress.

Fortunately, however, research has found that those who suffer from PTSD tend to be more hypnotizable than the average person (this is thought to be because they can vividly imagine things which is an important component that helps to make an individual able to respond to hypnotherapy positively.

Many PTSD sufferers, therefore, can potentially be helped by practicing self-hypnosis.

What Is The Evidence That Hypnotherapy Can Effectively Reduce Symptoms Of PTSD?

There is a growing body of scientific evidence showing that those with PTSD can be helped by taking advantage of hypnotherapy. I briefly examine some of this evidence below:

1) Bryant et al carried out a research study that showed the more vividly PTSD sufferers experienced flashbacks and nightmares, the more hypnotizable they tended to be.

2) Brom et al ran an experiment in which PTSD sufferers were split into three groups :

Group 1 received psychodynamic psychotherapy

Group 2 received were treated using systematic desensitization techniques

Group 3 received hypnotherapy

Results : Whilst all three groups responded equally well, group 3, comprising individuals who underwent hypnotherapy, required the fewest treatment sessions.

Other Research:

Forbes et al. found hypnotherapy to be an effective means of reducing nightmares and flashbacks in PTSD sufferers.

Krakow et al. carried out research showing that children who had experienced early life trauma were able to use imagery under hypnosis which reduced their nightmares and intrusive thoughts, as well as reducing their levels of emotional arousal and improving their quality of sleep.

Furthermore, there is good evidence that hypnotherapy can substantially help those suffering from mental health issues linked to PTSD such as depression and anxiety.

ALL OTHER ARTICLES ON MINDFULNESS AND HYPNOTHERAPY :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combining Hypnosis with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

Hypnosis And CBT :

Cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, is, essentially, a therapy which seeks to alter the way we think and behave in order to improve how we feel. CBT can be COMBINED with hypnotherapy in order to make it more effective. it is thought to make it more effective as it causes the individual being treated to become more receptive to the therapist’s suggestions, and, also, it enhances his/her ability to utilize imagery. Hypnosis can also help the individual being treated become more insightful into the causes of his/her psychological symptoms.

hypnosis and CBT

Above : Combining CBT with hypnosis lets us tap into both conscious and unconscious processing to help us find solutions to our problems.

Below, I provide some examples of areas of CBT in which hypnosis can help it become more effective in treating the patient:

1) THE USE OF POST HYPNOTIC SUGGESTION: For example, the individual being treated may be given the post-hypnotic suggestion (this is a suggestion made by the therapist to the effect that the individual will behave in a particular way once the hypnosis is over. An example of a post-hypnotic suggestion is: ‘whenever you have a negative thought you will challenge it and try to replace it with a more positive one.’

2) REFRAMING : Another area where it can be useful to combine hypnotherapy with CBT is by improving the ability of the individual being treated develop the skill of REFRAMING. Reframing refers to the skill, taught in CBT, of looking at a negative experience or situation and to try, with conscious effort, to interpret it in a more positive way.

3) INTRUSIVE THOUGHTS : Furthermore, it can help the individual under treatment identify INTRUSIVE THOUGHTS and more effectively control their emotional responses to such thoughts.

These are just some of the ways that hypnosis can be combined with CBT to both accelerate and augment its effectiveness. It is thought to do this by helping the individual under treatment FOCUS on the experience of therapy. It may, too, improve the therapeutic relationship between the therapist and the individual being treated, because, for example, the hypnotic experience tends to be comforting, and, also,to promote trust between the therapist and patient. Additionally, it can give the individual being treated a greater sense of security which often leads to greater compliance with the therapist’s suggestions.

RETURN HOME TO ABOUT CHILDHOOD TRAUMA RECOVERY

.David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

What Neuroimaging Tells Us About Hypnosis.

hypnosis and neuroimaging
childhood_trauma_effects

Hypnosis And Neuroimaging :

Neuroimaging refers to a technique of examining which areas of the brain are active at any one time and can tell us something about how hypnosis works it involves the use of very expensive equipment which can display images of brain activity when the brain is involved with various tasks. I will start off by looking at neuroimaging in relation to the brain’s experience of pain.

NEUROIMAGING AND THE EXPERIENCE OF PAIN:

A study by Rainville et al (1997), using a brain imaging technique, showed that when a HYPNOTIZED subject was given the HYPNOTIC SUGGESTION THAT HE WOULD EXPERIENCE PAIN (ie he wasn’t exposed to a real painful stimulus), the degree of activity in a brain regions associated with the experience of real pain (SOMATOSENSORY CORTICAL AREAS) could be increased and decreased by the experimenter making the suggestions that the subject was experiencing more or less pain respectively.

Another study, by Derbyshire et al (2004), again using NEUROIMAGING, found that subjects given the hypnotic suggestion that they were experiencing pain showed a similar response in brain acivity. However, those subjects merely instructed to IMAGINE PAIN (WITHOUT HYPNOSIS) did NOT display the activity.

hypnosis and neuroimaging

These studies suggest that, under hypnosis, without the application of a real painful stimulus, subjects can be caused to experience pain by the hypnotic suggestion that they will experience it. It seems, too, hypnosis is having a real effect, as merely telling the subject to imagine pain (without use of hypnosis, does not have the same effect).

It seems as if, according to such studies, effects of hypnotic suggestion are GENUINE, not only at the subjective level, but also in as far as they have been shown to EFFECT BRAIN FUNCTION IN A MANNER WHICH SHOWS UP VIA NEUROIMAGING: it appears that hypnotically suggested experiences CAN CAUSE SIMILAR BRAIN ACTIVITY PATTERNS TO THOSE WHICH WOULD BE CAUSED IF THE EXPERIENCE WERE REAL.

POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS:

If hypnotically suggested experiences have a similar effect on the brain as real ones, there follow implications for treatment of conditions that make use of exposure therapy, such as phobias (ie the person suffering from the phobia could be given the hypnotic suggestion that s/he was exposed to the feared object as part of the DESENSITIZATION PROCESS; that is, getting used to the object feared so that the fear it induces gradually diminishes over time.

A caveat, however, is that  studies of brain imaging in relation to hypnosis have not given consistent results; more studies into this area of research need to be conducted.

NEUROIMAGING, HYPNOSIS AND MOOD:

Marquet et al (1999), using a neuroimaging technique, discovered that subjects given the instruction, under hypnosis, to re-experience pleasant memories from their own lives showed significantly more activation in related brain regions (eg the PREFRONTAL CORTEX and OCCIPITAL LOBE) than when they they were merely instructed to imagine the same events (not under hypnosis); again, this suggests that the HYPNOTIC EFFECT IS A REAL ONE, with real, OBSERVERABLE effects on brain activity. Again, however, a lot more research needs to be conducted in order to clarify the relationship between hypnosis and its effect upon brain activity.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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