Emotional Neglect In Childhood Linked To Ecstasy (MDMA) Use

According to research carried out by Ramo et al., (2013), individuals who have experienced childhood emotional neglect, as well as physical neglect and abuse are significantly more likely to become users of ecstasy (MDMA) than those fortunate enough to have experienced relatively stable and loving childhoods. Many users report using ecstasy (MDMA) to reduce feelings […]

Depression: Components Of The Mental Pain Experienced By Sufferers

We have seen from numerous other articles that I’ve published on this site that if we experienced severe and chronic interpersonal childhood trauma we are, as adults, at an elevated risk of developing clinical depression (as well as a plethora of other psychiatric and, indeed, physical conditions). We have also seen that, if we are […]

‘Psychache’ And Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Shneidman coined the term ‘PSYCHACHE‘ and he used the word to refer to unbearable mental pain, inner torment and turmoil. He theorized that this terrible mental pain was caused by: unmet psychological needs (see ‘UNMET CORE NEEDS’ below). and a combination of various negative emotions (including guilt, fear, helplessness and loneliness) to form a GENERALIZED […]

Possible Effects Of Maternal Depression On Infants’ Cognitive, Social And Emotional Development

Mothers suffering from serious depression are less likely than non-depressed mothers to interact with their infants in joyful, stimulating and positive ways. Instead, they are more likely to demonstrate negative moods around their infants, to exhibit more anxiety, sadness and agitation, to be less playful, to smile and laugh less, to frown more, to lack […]

Unable To Live In The Present? Therapy And Dual Awareness Can Help

    Many people who have suffered severe and protracted childhood trauma and, as a result, go on to develop complex posttraumatic stress disorder or related conditions often feel permanently stuck in the past and unable to live in the present. Indeed, the past may seem more real and substantial than the present – in […]

Why Are Girls More Likely To Report Suffering Depression Than Boys?

Research shows that during adolescence girls are more likely to experience depression than are boys (this difference between males and females is also reflected in the adult population). Why should this disparity between the genders exist? INTERNALIZATION VERSUS EXTERNALIZATION : According to Daniel Freeman (a psychiatrist at the University of London) and Jason Freeman (his […]

Childhood Trauma, The Hippocampus, Depression And Neurogenesis.

Childhood Trauma Can Harm Brain And Increase Risk Of Depression. However, The Good News Is The Brain Can Recover. This Article Explains How. When we are at our most depressed, we may look at (as others perceive it) a beautiful sunset and derive no more pleasure from it than we would from looking at a […]

How We Develop A Depressive Thinking Style As Children : The 3P Theory.

According to Martin Seligman, an expert in Positive Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, one of the main processes by which we develop a depressive thinking style as children is by a tendency to explain negative events as : PERMANENT (i.e. not something that is transient and will pass). PERVASIVE (i.e. generalizing. For example, failing […]

Depression : Anger Towards Parents Turned Inward?

The idea that depression is the result of our anger towards others (such as our parents) who have hurt and betrayed being turned inwards towards ourselves is usually thought to originate from the theories of Sigmund Freud, 1856 -1939 (who discussed the concept in his paper entitled ‘Mourning And Melancholia‘), although it is more likely […]

How Childhood Trauma Can Lead To Depression And Unhappiness As Adults.

A study of 238 young people between the ages of 15 and 18 years conducted at Cambridge University, U.K., focused on investigating how GENES AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACT and in what ways this interaction increases or decreases an individual’s chances of being. diagnosed with depression in later life. In the study, the teenagers were put into […]

Psychotic Depression, Schizophrenia And Childhood Trauma Subtypes

  Sub-Types Of Childhood Trauma : As we have seen from other articles I have published on this site, childhood trauma can be split into 4 main subtypes: emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect. In this article, I briefly describe some of the main research findings in regard to the association between childhood […]

Childhood Psychological Trauma Can Lead To Brain Inflammation

  It has recently been discovered that chronic, unpredictable, psychological stress in early life can lead to inflammation in the brain. This has come as something of a surprise to many researchers as it had previously been believed by most of those working in this recondite field of neurology that such inflammation of the brain […]

‘Distress Intolerance’ : Do Your Feelings Sometimes Feel Unbearable?

The term DISTRESS INTOLERANCE refers to a frame of mind in which we consider the mental pain, anguish or discomfort we are experiencing to be UTTERLY INTOLERABLE AND UNBEARABLE so that we become frantic and desperate to avoid it/escape it. The emotions we feel unable to tolerate usually belong to three main categories; these are: […]