David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE), Author at Childhood Trauma Recovery - Page 17 of 17

Author Archives: David Hosier Bsc Hons; Msc; Pgde(fahe)

Psychologist, researcher and educationalist.

Factors That Put The Child’s Mental Health At Risk

child mental health risk factors

factors that put the child's mental health at risk

The Risk And Resilience Model :

According to the Risk And Resilience Model (Pearce , 1993) there exist three categories of factors that put the child’s mental health at risk. These are as follows :

  1. Factors relating to the child’s / young person’s environment
  2. Factors relating to the child’s / young person’s family
  3. Factors relating to the child / young person himself / herself

child mental health risk factors

The List Of Risk Factors (Split Into The Three Categories Given Above) :

Let’s look at each of these three categories of factors in turn :

  1. Factors relating to the child’s / young person’s environment :

These include the following :

  • living in a violent community
  • socioeconomic deprivation
  • living in an environment in which one is discriminated against
  • homelessness
  • living in the environment as a refugee or asylum seeker
  • disaster
  • other significant, adverse life event

 2. Factors relating to the child’s / young person’s family :

    3. Factors relating to the child / young person himself / herself :

  • low I.Q. / learning difficulties
  • genetic influences
  • temperamental difficulties
  • communication difficulties
  • specific developmental delay
  • chronic physical illness
  • gender identity conflict
  • low self-esteem
  • academic failure
  • poor school attendance
  • neurological disorder

Resilience : Factors That Help To Protect A Child / Young Person From Becoming Mentally Ill :

Pearce’s model also includes factors that help to protect a child / young person from becoming mentally ill which he refers to as RESILIENCE FACTORS ; I list these below :

  • social skills
  • self-esteem
  • familial compassion and warmth
  • a stable family environment
  • a skill or talent
  • a social support system that encourages personal development and coping skills

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Childhood Trauma And Nocturnal Enuresis

childhood trauma and cptsd

nocturnal enuresis

Individuals who suffer significant stress / trauma in early life are more likely to suffer from NOCTURNAL ENURESIS than those individuals who are fortunate enough not to do so.

What Is Nocturnal Enuresis?

Nocturnal enuresis is a pattern of voiding urine, at night, into bed or clothes, and can be both involuntary or deliberate. To be classified as nocturnal enuresis, such voiding of urine must occur after the age of 5 years.

Is Someone Who Suffers From Nocturnal Enuresis Likely To Suffer From Other Types Of Psychopathology?

Yes, relative to those who do not suffer from it. Psychopathological conditions associated with nocturnal enuresis include the following :

  • adjustment disorder
  • anxiety
  • oppositional defiant disorder
  • ADHD

Nocturnal Enuresis In Adolescents :

It is generally believed that an adolescent who suffers from nocturnal enuresis is more likely to have underlying psychopathological conditions (such as the four that I have listed above) than a much younger child who suffers from it.

Other Information About Nocturnal Enuresis :

In most involuntary cases, the  voiding of urine occurs between 30 minutes and 3 hours of the individual who suffers from it falling asleep and, for the condition to be formally diagnosed (according to the Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Illness IV , or DSM IV) the symptoms must have occurred at least twice per week for at least three consecutive months or they must have caused marked impairment or distress to the sufferer.

What Treatments Are Available For Nocturnal Enuresis?

Treatments for nocturnal enuresis include :

  • behavior modification
  • psychotherapy for associated, psychopathological conditions (such as those referred to above)
  • certain medications (on the advice of a suitably qualified professional such as a GP)

Successful treatment will frequently bring about associated benefits including increased social confidence and raised self-esteem.

 

eBook :

childhood trauma and cptsd

The above eBook is now available on Amazon for immediate download.

Click here for further information and/or to view other available titles by David Hosier.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSC’ PGDE(FAHE).

 

Antidepressants : Are Those Who Experienced Early Life Trauma Less Responsive To Them?

do antidepressants work?

MDD, early life-trauma and antidepressants

Antidepressants And Childhood Trauma :

As part of the international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D) involving over one thousand individuals who had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). research was undertaken to compare the prevalence of histories of early childhood trauma in this group with the same prevalence in  a group of ‘healthy’ controls (this latter group was comprised of 336 matched individuals).

antidepressants and childhood trauma

Results :

Depressed individuals more likely to have suffered early-life stress (see below)

When the two groups were compared, it was found that :

  • In the group of individuals who had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), 62.5% had suffered more than two traumatic events before the age of 18.
  • In the group of ‘healthy’ individuals, 28.4% had suffered more than two traumatic events before the age of 18.

(The number of traumatic events each individual was determined to have suffered before the age of 18 was defined with reference to Early-Life Stress Questionnaire.)

Another part of the study examined how the individuals suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) responded to antidepressant treatment (the treatment period was eight weeks and individuals were treated with one of three antidepressants : escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine).

Results :

It was found that individuals who had histories of abuse (physical, sexual or emotional), particularly if this abuse occurred before the age of 7 years, had an impaired response to all three (see above) antidepressants used in the study.

Those individuals who had suffered abuse (physical, sexual or emotional) between the ages of 4 years and 7 years and were treated with sertraline (see above) had the poorest of all response to the treatment.

Conclusion :

This study suggests that individuals who have suffered significant levels of early-life stress may be less likely to respond positively to treatment with antidepressants than those who have not. However, further research is necessary to cast more light upon this apparently inverted relationship between the two variables.

eBook :

childhood trauma and depression

Above eBook now available for instant download from Amazon. Click here for further details.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

NB :  The above is for information only. Always consult an appropriately qualified professional when making decisions relating to medication.

 

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