Emotional Neglect And Epigenetics.
Studies suggest that emotional neglect / emotional deprivation and a lack of warm, affectionate, loving nurture in childhood can, in effect, switch off crucial genes that help us to regulate stress.
This is thought to be due to a phenomenon known as an epigenetic modification.
What Is Meant By The Term ‘EPIGENETICS?’
Epigenetic modification refers to the mechanism whereby the way in which genes express themselves can be altered by external, environmental factors (and such changes are then heritable).
Evidence From The Study Individuals Who Had Committed Suicide :
Poulter, et al., 2008 studied the brains of individuals who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and had subsequently committed suicide. He then compared these brains to the brains of healthy individuals (who had died in accidents).
The result of this rather macabre comparison was as follows :
In the brains of the individuals who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and had subsequently committed suicide, the genes responsible for regulating stress had been, effectively, SWITCHED OFF.
This was NOT found to be the case when the brains of the previously healthy individuals were examined.
It was concluded that the genes responsible for regulating stress in the individuals who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and had subsequently committed suicide may have shut down as A RESULT OF SEVERE STRESS DURING CHILDHOOD AND RESULTANT EPIGENETIC CHANGES
Another, similar study, was conducted by McGowan et al., 2009 :
In this study, the researchers examined :
1) the brains suicide victims WHO HAD SUFFERED CHILDHOOD TRAUMA
and compared them with
2) the brains of deceased, mentally healthy individuals
3) the brains of individuals who had committed suicide BUT HAD NOT SUFFERED FROM CHILDHOOD TRAUMA.
It appeared from the results of these examinations that epigenetic changes had occurred in those who had committed suicide and had suffered childhood trauma, but NOT in those who had been mentally healthy prior to death nor in those who had committed suicide but had NOT suffered childhood trauma.
These results add weight to the hypothesis that epigenetic modifications can be caused by emotional neglect / inadequate protection from stress during childhood which may, in turn, increase the risk of the affected individual developing a mental disorder and, ultimately, of committing suicide.
Evidence From Animal Studies
A study by Bagot et al., 2012 found that stress genes involved in the regulation of stress in newborn rats ARE SWITCHED ON BY THE ATTENTIVE LICKING AND GROOMING OF THEIR MOTHERS. So, this study, too, suggests that epigenetic changes may well be related to the quality of parental care during postnatal development (although further research is required to ascertain to what degree the findings of this study can be extrapolated to humans).
Implications For Treatment Of Psychological Conditions Related To Childhood Trauma :
Although such research as described above is in its incipient stages, it is hoped that, as such studies accrue, new, effective and innovative ways of treating adult conditions connected to severe stress during crucial stages of early life, psychological development will be created.
David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).