What Is Meant By Childhood Development?
We can define childhood development as a complex process of developing competences and attaining achievements from early childhood through to adolescence / early adulthood. These fall into the following main categories :
– intellectual / cognitive
Young Child :
During early childhood developmental tasks include :
building a sense of trust
learning to separate from parents (e.g. when starting school)
learning to adapt to peer group
learning to adapt to authority figures
development of feeling of safety away from the home
development of friendships
development of thinking / cognitive / intellectual abilities
development of self-esteem
During adolescence boys and girls experience 6 main developmental tasks. These are :
maintaining progress towards independence
solidifying a capacity for meaningful relationships
clarification of a sense of sexual identity
development of interests and competencies
internalization of moral values
development of autonomy
How the child is affected will depend upon the timing of the trauma (and its adverse consequences) and at which stage of the developmental process the child is at at this time. Depending upon this timing the child may develop problems relating to attachment (such as reactive attachment disorder, disorganized attachment disorder or insecure attachment), separation anxiety, psychosexual issues and social issues such as problems with peer relationships. However, any of the developmental tasks referred to above may be adversely affected.
If traumatic experiences coincide with critical developmental transitions, such transitions may be jeopardized ; how these ill-effects manifest themselves is subject to great variability – see below :
development may be interrupted
development may be delayed
development may be arrested (e.g. a traumatized teenager’s emotional development might get stuck at, say, thirteen)
the child may regress to an earlier stage of development (e.g. a toilet trained toddler might start having accidents)
a developmental stage may be accelerated / the child may undergo precocious development
Mastering these stages / developmental tasks are necessary for an emotionally and psychologically healthy adult life, and, because they require much psychic energy are largely dependent upon a safe, stable, supportive and nurturing environment.
Above eBook now available for instant download from Amazon. Click here for further details or to view other titles.
David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).
(Visited 15 times, 1 visits today)
Please follow and like us: