The renowned UK psychologist, Oliver James, argues both eloquently and convincingly in his most enlightening book : ‘Not In Your Genes’, that the extremely serious and distressing psychiatric disorder, schizophrenia , is almost entirely the result of environmental factors, and far less related to genetic influences than has previously believed. In making this argument, he also alerts us to the incipient theory that so-called psychotic ‘hallucinations‘ may, in fact, frequently actually be intrusive, TRAUMA-BASED MEMORIES.
In fact, this theory is far from new ; over eighty years ago, in 1936, Sigmund Freud proposed that hallucinations were caused by repressed memories of trauma erupting out of the unconscious mind and into consciousness.
RESEARCH SUGGESTING LINK BETWEEN HALLUCINATIONS AND MEMORIES :
But there exists, too, much more recent research into the putative connection between hallucinations (both of the auditory kind – sometimes referred to as ‘hearing voices’ and of the visual kind – sometimes referred to as ‘visions’). For example, Read and Argyle (1999) conducted a study involving one hundred psychotic patients and found that, amongst the content of hallucinations that these patients reported, fully half of this material consisted of fragments of memories relating to trauma that they had suffered during their childhoods.
Furthermore, Morrison et al (2002) conducted a study involving 35 psychotic individuals and found that very nearly half (17 out of the 35) reported having visual hallucinations, the content of which was associated with actual events which had taken place earlier during their lives.
Additionally, McCarthy-Jones et al (2014) conducted research into 199 patients who ‘heard voices’ (i,.e. experienced auditory hallucinations) and found that 12% of these individuals reported that these ‘voices’ exactly replicated actual conversations they had had in their earlier lives ; a further 31% reported ‘hearing voices’ that approximated actual conversations they had had in their earlier lives.
MORE RESEARCH NEEDED :
However, no firm conclusions may yet be drawn regarding the possible link between the content of hallucinations and trauma-based memories. One of the reasons for this is that most of the research that has been conducted in relation to intrusive, trauma-related memories (as occurs in PTSD and complex-PTSD) has focused upon VISUAL MEMORIES, whilst, on the other hand, most of the research that has so far be conducted into the hallucinations of psychotic patients has focused upon the AUDITORY SENSE. In order for more light to be shed on this topic, this dichotomy of research focus needs to be addressed.
David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).