In this article, I want to look at five examples of psychological techniques a manipulative parent might make use of in order to gain power and control over his/ her offspring (there are many more than five of these techniques, but I will cover those in later articles).
Five Techniques That Manipulative Parents May Use:
1) Preventing the victim from expressing negative emotions:
With this technique, the parent maintains that it is not what they themselves have done that is the problem - according to them, the 'real' problem is the offspring's reaction to what they have done.
For example, according to the manipulative parent, if the offspring is distressed and upset by what the parent has done then this is due to the 'fact' that the offspring is oversensitive.
Or, if the offspring is angry about how s/he has been treated by the parent, the parent may say that the offspring's anger is caused by him/her being so unforgiving.
A final example: if the offspring feels a desperate need to express how hurt s/he is by the parent's behaviour, and so keeps bringing the subject up in an attempt to understand and process what has happened, the parent may high-handedly dismiss the victim as 'sounding like a broken record'.
In such cases, then, it can be seen that the manipulative parent can be skilfully adept at redirecting blame onto the victim and invalidating his/ her claims.
In this way, the offspring is forced to suppress powerful emotions at the expense of his/ her mental health - such suppression actually has the effect of intensifying the emotions, and, therefore, it is only a matter of time before they burst out again, their vigour redoubled. This process will frequently lead to the development of a vicious cycle.
2) Blaming the victim :
For example, a father who hits his son may claim that it was the son's behaviour that 'drove him to it'
Or a drunk parent may blame his/ her habitual drinking on the stress of bringing up the offspring.
In my own case, my mother threw me out of the home when I was thirteen. Due to my 'behaviour', apparently. And, whenever I cried (pretty much a daily occurrence around this age, admittedly), her favourite cutting, demeaning and belittling response (and the contemptuous tone in which it was delivered is still ringing in my ears, decades later) was that I should 'turn off the waterworks.'
3) Inappropriate personal disclosure:
Prior to my forced eviction when I had only just become a teenager, my mother had essentially used me as her personal counsellor; indeed, she used to refer to me as her 'Little Psychiatrist'. During these, for want of a better term, 'counselling sessions' she would very frequently discuss with me the problems she was invariably experiencing with the latest man she was seeing (particularly one who was highly unstable and frequently in and out of jail and lived with us for two years, but that's another story).
She would also discuss her sex-life. She once told me, for example, that, despite the fact that she had been married to my father for about fifteen years (before they divorced when I was eight), she had only ever had sex with him twice. As she has two children (I have an older brother) this was highly unlikely (and subsequently transpired to be a falsehood). Manipulators often disclose such inappropriately intimate details to encourage the other person to feel close to them, which, in turn, makes the victim easier to take advantage of and exploit.
4) Empty words (talk is cheap):
Examples of this include:
'I'd make any sacrifice for you.'
'Your happiness is my number one priority.'
'I think about you all the time.'
However, the manipulator's actions fail to substantiate these claims time and time again. Indeed, the contrast between his/her words and actions is depressingly stark. Empty words, of course, cost the manipulative parent nothing but s/he knows that by using them s/he can gain great power and control over the offspring, even making the victim feel ungrateful and indebted to him/her. It can also cause mental illness in the victim by invalidating his/her own perceptions and making him/ her question his/her very sense of reality. Indeed, it places the victim in a double bind (click here to read my article about this).
5) Minimising :
For example, I was always told I was overstating the negative effect my childhood had on my psychological well-being (I have since discovered, however, that I was dramatically understating it).
Minimisation, then, involves the manipulative parent telling the offspring that they are essentially 'making mountains out of molehills', even ( or, indeed, especially), when the accusation is grotesquely inaccurate.
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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).Click here for reuse options!
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