How We Are Influenced By Our Unconscious Childhood Memories


As Alice Miller (1933-2010) states in her seminal book Free From Lies children learn by imitating their parents and much of this imitating is due to unconscious learning.

To illustrate this Miller refers to a study in which mothers Read the rest

What Is The Difference Between PTSD And Complex PTSD?


There has been some controversy regarding the difference between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) amongst researchers and members of the medical profession.

During the early 1990s, the psychologist Judith Herman, in her seminal Read the rest

Problems Those With BPD May Encounter In The Workplace


There is a very strong link between the experience of severe and protracted childhood trauma and being diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in later life. As we have seen in other articles I have published on this site, Read the rest

Unhappy With BPD Diagnosis? Is ‘Formulation’ The Answer?


Increasingly, many individuals who have been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and who have suffered severe and protracted childhood trauma are starting to question whether the BPD diagnosis is the correct and most appropriate one. One of the Read the rest

Damage To Brain Development Caused By Trauma Increases During Developmental Epochs


We have seen in other articles I have published on this site that severe and protracted childhood trauma can increase the risk of damage to particular brain regions (e.g. the amygdala) and, in so doing, increase our risk Read the rest

Does Betrayal Trauma Increase Risk Of ADHD?


Betrayal trauma is a term which comes from betrayal trauma theory which was developed by Freyd (1994). Essentially, an individual may experience betrayal trauma when betrayed by a person to whom s/he is very close and upon whom the Read the rest

Trauma Involving Betrayal More Likely To Lead To BPD And PTSD


We have seen from numerous other articles that I have published on this site that those of us who experienced severe and protracted childhood trauma are at a highly increased risk of being diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and/or Read the rest

Betrayal Trauma Theory And ‘Betrayal Blindness’.


As Bowlby emphasized, the child is profoundly dependent upon a reliable and secure attachment with his/her parent/primary carer for his/her physical and psychological health; indeed, throughout human evolutionary history, such a protective relationship has been crucial to the child’s Read the rest

Childhood Trauma And Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder


Childhood Trauma And Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Survivors of extreme trauma often suffer persistent anxiety, phobias, panic, depression, identity and relationship problems Many times, the set of symptoms the individual presents with are not connected to the original trauma Read the rest

Some BPD Traits May Have Been Adaptive For Our Ancestors And Helped Them Survive


Certain studies have suggested that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is up to 67 per cent heritable (e.g. Torgenson et al. 2000 and 2012). In other words, these studies suggest there is a large genetic component that contributes to an Read the rest

Study On Effects Of Trauma Of 9/11 On Children Directly Exposed To The Tragedy

Whilst there has been a lot of research conducted upon the psychological and physiological effects of the 9/11 tragedy on adults, far less has been conducted on children who witnessed that appalling tragedy. However, researchers at Columbia University have helped Read the rest

‘Upper’ And ‘Lower’ BPD: Kernberg’s Theory


According to Kernberg, the symptoms of BPD can be divided up into four major categories. These categories are as follows:


Additionally, Kernberg asserts that Read the rest

Effects Of Adolf Hitler’s Childhood



In the 1940s, at the request of the Office of Strategic Services (a former incarnation of the Criminal Intelligence Agency (CIA), a psychiatrist by the name of Walter Langer produced a psychological profile of Hitler, including details about Read the rest

Unwanted: Effects Of Being Born To A Mother Denied Abortion.



What are the effects on the child of being born unwanted because his/her mother wanted an abortion but was prevented from having one? A Czechoslovakian study, known as The Prague Study, spanning over thirty years and involving 220 Read the rest

Dysfunctional Tension Reduction Activities Complex PTSD and BPD Sufferers May Use


One of the hallmarks of both complex PTSD and borderline persona; disorder (BPD) is a feeling of constant anxiety, agitation and apprehensiveness, As a result of feeling trapped and imprisoned in this distressing state, individuals become desperate to escape Read the rest