Tag Archives: Episodic Memory

Implicit And Explicit Memories Of Childhood Trauma. What’s The Difference?

Implicit And Explicit Memories Of Childhood Trauma. What's The Difference?

One way of describing memory (amongst many others) is to divide the way in which it processes and stores information into two distinct categories; these being :




I explain the difference between these to types of memory below:

The Difference Between Explicit And Implicit Memory :

Explicit and implicit memory are two types of long-term memory so, first, it might be useful, very briefly, to explain what is meant by long-term memory:

Essentially, long-term memories are those memories we store which are not currently in our conscious minds, but which we can easily access. For example, if you were asked the capital of France, you could bring to mind ‘Paris’. You weren’t thinking of Paris before you read ‘capital of France‘ as it was being stored below the level of conscious awareness (like just about all the information you currently hold in your head) but you were easily able to bring it to conscious awareness (i.e. to retrieve it from long-term memory and temporarily back into short-term memory)  and answer the question.


For those that are interested –  if not, skip to next paragraphshort-term memory contains information currently held in consciousness awareness; for example, if someone read out the digits 4,7,2,8,9 just once and asked you to repeat them back you would be able to do so by holding them in conscious awareness or short-term memory.

 If you wanted to transfer them to long-term memory, you could repeat them a few times until they were stored below the level of conscious awareness, not think about them for a day, then retrieve them from long-term memory and, temporarily, back into conscious awareness (i.e. back into short-term memory) when called upon to do so.

(The average person can store seven digits in short-term memory, so if read 10 random digits and asked to repeat them back, most people would be able to do so; however, for, say, 5 digits, most people would be able to repeat them back).

Implicit And Explicit Memories Of Childhood Trauma. What's The Difference?

Implicit Memory :

Implicit memory refers to unconscious memory which does not require detailed, conscious, explicit recall. As an example, I will describe a case study I first learned about as a first year psychology undergraduate:

An Illustration Of Implicit Memory : The Extraordinary Case Of H.M. – or The Man With ‘No Memory’.

The psychologist, Penfield, had a patient (usually referred to in the psychological literature only as H.M., but whose actual name was Henry Molaison) who underwent brain surgery for epilepsy. Whilst the epilepsy was significantly alleviated, the surgery had a tragic side-effect : H.M.’s memory was devastatingly affected and he could no longer store new memories for more than a few minutes.

However, intriguingly, it was found he could store new information on an unconscious level. To demonstrate this, when Penfield met with him for a consultation one day, he secreted in his hand a drawing pin so that when H.M. shook hands with him in greeting, he (H.M.)received a painful prick from the drawing pin on his hand. However, because of his damaged memory, he later had no conscious memory of this event.

But, here’s the really intriguing part:

A week or so later, at their next consultation, Penfield, as usual, offered his hand to H.M. to shake. This time, H.M. expressed great reluctance to do so (even though, as I’ve said, he had no conscious memory of the drawing pin incident). So, the key question is, why was he reluctant to shake hands? Well, the answer is that it was because H.M. had an unconscious, or IMPLICIT, memory of painful incident. This led him to be unwilling to shake hands, yet unable to explain, nor understand, from whence this unwillingness arose.

Explicit Memory :

This type of memory operates according to conscious, deliberate intentions and can be split into two further subcategories, namely episodic and semantic memory. I differentiate between these two subcategories below:

  •    episodic memory – this type of memory (sometimes also referred to as biographical memory) relates to one’s personal experiences (e.g. what one did yesterday).


  •    semantic memory – this type of memory relates to factual information (e.g. that a dog has four legs) and concepts (e.g. that gravity causes objects to fall to the ground).


Implicit Memory And Childhood Trauma:

Whilst H.M. lost his conscious memory as a result of his surgery, those who suffer severe childhood trauma may also have no conscious memory of certain traumatic events, or periods, that occurred in their early lives. Two main reasons for this are :

1) The traumatic event/period occurred too early in life (i.e. in babyhood or infancy) to form long-term, conscious, explicit memories.

2) The traumatic event/period was so severe that, as a psychological defense, it has been unconsciously repressed.

In both of the above two cases, however, it is likely that implicit memories of the traumatic event/period will remain. Again, an example is probably useful here:

A new boss makes a very minor criticism of John’s work. John reacts with objectively disproportionate concern and starts to worry he’ll be sacked and thrown out of the organization for which he works as, on an unconscious level, the new boss’s tone of voice triggered in John’s mind the implicit memory of his father’s (who used to criticize him relentlessly and eventually threw him out of the family home when he was sixteen) manner of speech.


Just because we may not be able to consciously recall aspects of our childhood trauma, we may well retain an implicit memory of these aspects. These implicit memories may cause us to behave in certain, seemingly inexplicable, ways that appear, superficially, to be non-sequiturs, due to the true causes remaining hidden from us and outside of our conscious awareness.

Resources :

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Implicit And Explicit Memories Of Childhood Trauma. What's The Difference?


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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).


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Copyright 2016 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Have You ‘Blanked Out’ Painful Parts Of Your Childhood?

Have You 'Blanked Out' Painful Parts Of Your Childhood?

In this article I want to focus on two different types of memory; these are :


Let’s look at each of these in turn :


This part of our memory deals with happenings and events. For example, our memory of our first day at school (if we have one – I don’t, as it happens) is an EPISODIC MEMORY, as is our memory (again, if we have one – again, I don’t) of our seventh birthday.

Most people do not have any EPISODIC MEMORIES that predate their third birthday and many others do not have any EPISODIC MEMORIES which predate their fifth birthday. (I have virtually no memory of anything before I was about eight years old, which is unusual).

Freud called these deficiencies in early episodic memories infantile amnesia and that the cause of this memory loss was repression. However, modern neuroscience suggests that Freud was mistaken and that the real reason that early episodic memories fail to form is due to the fact that the brain has not developed sufficiently to create and store such memories (in technical terms, insufficient MYELINATION has occurred in the brain for episodic memory to function adequately).

However, if we can’t remember significant chunks of our childhoods that occurred AFTER ABOUT THE AGE OF FIVE YEARS, modern psychodynamic theory assumes that THIS failure of episodic memory IS due to repression. In other words, the theory suggests we have unconsciously ‘buried’ (i.e. repressed) these memories as they are too painful, distressing and traumatizing to hold in (or, indeed, be permitted direct access to) conscious memory.


Have You 'Blanked Out' Painful Parts Of Your Childhood?



Procedural memory works on an unconscious level and starts to function, unlike episodic memory (see above), as soon as we are born. It stores memories of how to perform tasks (during the period we learn how to perform these tasks) and stores this knowledge in long-term memory so that when we try to perform the task again we know how to do so without consciously thinking about it and without being able, again on a conscious level, to remember precisely how we learned to do it in the first place. This sounds a little complicated so here’s a (hopefully elucidating) example :

We know how to walk even though we do it without thinking about it (i.e. on ‘autopilot’) and without being able to remember learning to do it. Therefore, knowing how to walk relies on procedural memory.

This type of memory is also sometimes referred to as IMPLICIT MEMORY and, as well as things like learning to crawl, walk and talk, implicit memory also stores information about how we interacted with, and related to, our primary care-givers in our earliest years; and, again, this memory is stored unconsciously.

However, even though this information about how we related in very early life to our primary care-givers does not have access to conscious recall, it still, according to modern psychodynamic theory, powerfully affects how we relate to others in adult life. Indeed, if, for example, our primary care-giver in early life was frequently aggressive towards us then this information is stored in implicit memory and puts us at high risk of being highly susceptible to the effects of stress in later life.

And this theory is reinforced by neuroscientific experiments which have found that if we are subjected to significant stress in early life this actually adversely affects the brain’s physical development, and, in particular, the development of a brain region called the amygdala which plays a central role in the brain’s reaction to external stressors.


We can conclude that, according to modern psychodynamic theory, if large chunks of our childhood (after the age of about five years) are ‘missing’ from our memory, it is quite possible we have repressed the memory of these parts of our lives as they were too disturbing and traumatizing to be ‘permitted’ direct access to conscious memory.

Also, if our very early relationships (before our episodic memory started to function effectively) with our primary care-givers were highly stressful, this may have adversely affected our brain’s physical development (leading to adult difficulties dealing with stress, amongst other problems) even though we cannot remember this very early part of our lives.

Have You 'Blanked Out' Painful Parts Of Your Childhood?

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).


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Copyright 2016 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery