Tag Archives: Bpd

Four Types Of ‘Dysregulation’ Displayed By BPD Sufferers

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BPD And Dysregulation :

We have already seen from many other articles that I have published on this site that those who have suffered severe and protracted childhood trauma are at greatly increased risk of going on to develop borderline personality disorder (BPD) than those who were fortunate enough to have experienced a relatively stable upbringing.

One of the main symptoms of this very serious and life-threatening condition (about ninety per cent of sufferers attempt suicide and about ten per cent die by suicide) is termed ‘DYSREGULATION.’

What Is Meant By The Term ‘Dysregulation?’

When the term DYSREGULATION is used in the psychological literature it most commonly refers to the great difficulty the BPD sufferer has controlling behavior and emotional states. However, more specifically, the dysregulation that those with BPD experience can be sub-divided into four particular types; these are :

1) EMOTIONAL DYSREGULATION

2) BEHAVIORAL DYSREGULATION

3) COGNITIVE DYSREGULATION

4) SELF DYSREGULATION

Below, I briefly define each of these four types of dysregulation :

  • Emotional Dysregulation :

This type of dysregulation refers to extreme sensitivity and difficulty controlling intense emotions. Individuals suffering from this type of dissociation not only feel emotions far more deeply than the average person, but also take longer to return to their ‘baseline’ / ‘normal’ mood.

For example, a person with BPD who is emotionally dysregulated may be easily moved to intense expressions of anger and then take far longer to calm down again compared to the average person. Others may disparagingly (due to their lack of knowledge and understanding of this life-threatening – see above – and acutely, indeed uniquely, mentally painful condition) describe such an individual as extremely ‘thin’skinned’, as ‘having a chip on his/her shoulder’, ‘a drama queen’ or as or as someone who is prone to extreme ‘over-reactions.’

A leading theory as to why individuals with BPD are emotionally dysregulated is that the development of their AMYGDALA (a brain region intimately involved with how we express emotions and how we react to stress) has been damaged as a result of severe childhood trauma.

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  • BEHAVIORAL DYSREGULATION :

This type of dysregulation refers to the severe problems those with BPD can have controlling their behavior ; such individuals may be highly impulsive and liable to indulge in high-risk behaviors that are self-destructive. Such behaviors may include :

    • excessive drinking
    • excessive drug taking
    • gambling
    • compulsive self-harm
    • risky sex
    • drink-driving / dangerous driving
    • excessive / compulsive spending leading to debt problems

 

  • COGNITIVE DYSREGULATION :

This type of dysregulation refers to disorganized thinking which may manifest itself as paranoid-type thinking and/or as states of DISSOCIATION.

BPD sufferers are also prone to ‘black and white’ / ‘all or nothing’ type thinking, indecision, self-doubt, distrust of others and intense self-hatred.

 

  • SELF DYSREGULATION :

This type of dysregulation refers to the weak sense of their own identity many BPD sufferers feel ( a typical BPD sufferer might express this by saying something along the lines of ‘I’ve no idea who I am‘), feelings of emptiness, and the difficulty many BPD sufferers experienced expressing their likes, dislikes, needs and feelings,

Dysregulation And Stress :

Individuals with BPD are far less able to cope with stress than the average person and dysregulation (relating to all four of the above categories) is especially likely to occur when such individuals are experiencing stress ; indeed, the greater the stress the individual is experiencing, the more dysregulated he/she is likely to become.

 

RESOURCES :

SELF-HYPNOSIS DOWNLOADABLE AUDIO :

‘CONTROL YOUR EMOTIONS.’ Click here for further details.

eBook :

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

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What Are The Differences Between BPD And Complex PTSD? : A Study

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Because there is a considerable overlap in symptoms between those suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) and those suffering from complex posttraumatic disorder (complex PTSD) , those with the latter condition can be misdiagnosed as suffering from the former condition (you can read my article about this by clicking here).

In order to help clarify the differences between the two conditions and help show how they are distinct from one another, this article is about a research study which sought to delineate these two very serious psychiatric conditions.

What Are The Differences In Symptoms Between Those Suffering From Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) And Those Suffering From Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD)?

A study into the different symptoms displayed by sufferers of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) involving the study of two hundred at eighty adult women who had experienced abuse during their childhoods and published in the European Journal of Psychotraumatology in 2014 compared the symptoms of those suffering from BPD with those suffering from complex PTSD.

The following results from the study were obtained :

SYMPTOMS SHARED APPROXIMATELY EQUALLY BETWEEN THOSE SUFFERING FROM BPD AND THOSE SUFFERING FROM COMPLEX PTSD :

Some symptoms were found to be shared approximately equally between those suffering from  borderline personality disorder (BPD) and those suffering from complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). The symptoms that fell into this category were as follows :

  • AFFECTIVE DYSREGULATION (ANGER) i.e. frequent feelings of intense rage that the individual cannot control (regulate)
  • VERY LOW FEELINGS OF SELF-WORTH
  • AFFECTIVE DYSREGULATION (SENSITIVE) i.e. feelings of hypersensitivity that cannot be controlled (regulated)
  • INTENSE FEELINGS OF GUILT
  • INTERPERSONAL DETACHMENT / ALONENESS i.e. feeling cut-off and alienated from others, isolated and apart
  • FEELINGS OF EMPTINESS

However, some symptoms were found to be significantly more prevalent amongst those suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) than amongst those suffering from complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) as shown below :

SYMPTOMS THAT WERE FOUND TO BE SIGNIFICANTLY MORE PREVALENT AMONGST THOSE SUFFERING FROM BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER (BPD) THAN AMONGST THOSE SUFFERING FROM COMPLEX POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (COMPLEX PTSD) :

 

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

 

 

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BPD And Hallucinations

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What Are Hallucinations?

Hallucinations are PERCEPTIONS that people experience but which are NOT caused by external stimuli/ input. However, to the person experiencing hallucinations, these perceptions feel AS IF THEY ARE REAL and that they are being generated by stimuli/ input outside of themselves (in fact, of course, the perceptions are being INTERNALLY GENERATED by the brain of the person who is experiencing the hallucination).

Different Types Of Hallucination :

There are several different types of hallucination and I summarize these below :

  • VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS – these involve ‘seeing’ something that in reality does not exist or ‘seeing’ something that does exist in a DISTORTED / ALTERED form.
  • AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS – these, most often, involve ‘hearing’ voices that have no external reality (though other ‘sounds’ may be hallucinated, too).
  • TACTILE HALLUCINATIONS – these occur when an individual feels as if s/he is being touched when, in fact, s/he isn’t (for example, feeling the sensation of insects crawling over one’s skin).
  • GUSTATORY HALLUCINATIONS – these occur when a person perceives a ‘taste’ in his/her mouth in the absence of any external to the person causing the taste.
  • OLFACTORY HALLUCINATION – this type of hallucination is sometimes also referred to as phantosmia and involves perceiving a smell which isn’t actually present.

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BPD And Hallucinations :

Mild hallucinations are actually not uncommon even amongst people with no mental illness (e.g. believing one has heard the doorbell ring when it hasn’t).

At the other end of the scale, however, are fully-blown hallucinations that involve the person who is experiencing them being psychotically detached from reality; for example, someone experiencing a psychotic episode might hear, very clearly and distinctly, voices that s/he fully believes are coming from an external source (such as ‘the devil’ or a dead relative). A person suffering from such hallucinations cannot in any way be convinced that the ‘voices’ are being generated within his/her own head/brain.

It is uncommon for people suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) to suffer from the most serious types of hallucinations (as described above); however, under acute stress (and those with BPD are, of course, far more likely to experience acute stress than the average person), the BPD sufferer may experience hallucinations that fall somewhere between the mild and severe types.

For example, if s/he (the BPD sufferer) was constantly belittled and humiliated by a parent when growing up, s/he may, when experiencing severe stress, ‘hear’ the ‘parent in their head’ saying such things as ‘you’re useless’ or ‘you’re worthless.’

However, unlike the person suffering unambiguously from psychosis, when this occurs s/he is not completely detached from reality but is aware the ‘voices’ are being generated within his/her own mind and are imaginary as opposed to real.

Severe hallucinations may be indicative of schizophrenia but can also have other causes which include : delirium tremens (linked to alcohol abuse), narcotics (e.g. LSD) and sensory deprivation.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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‘Amygdala Hijack’ And BPD

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One of the main, and most problematic, symptoms that those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer from is the experiencing of disproportionately intense emotional responses when under stress and an inability to control them or efficiently recover and calm down once such tempestuous emotions have been aroused. This very serious symptom of BPD is also often referred to as emotional dysregulation.

The main theory as to why such problems managing emotions occur is that damage has been done to the development of the brain region known as the amygdala in early life due to chronic trauma and, consequently, this area of the brain having been overloaded and overwhelmed by emotions such as fear and anxiety during early development causing a longterm malfunction which can extend well into adulthood or even endure for the BPD sufferer’s entire lifespan (in the absence of effective therapy).

The damage done to the development of the amygdala means that, as adults, when under stress, BPD sufferers are frequently likely to experience what is sometimes referred to as an emotional highjack or, as in the title of this article, an amygdala hijack.

What Is ‘Amygdala Hijack’ And How Does It Prevent Emotional Calm?

When external stimuli are sufficiently stressful, the amygdala ‘shuts down’ the prefrontal cortex (the prefrontal cortex is responsible planning, decision making and intellectual abilities).

In this way, when a certain threshold of stress is passed (and this threshold in far lower in BPD sufferers than the average person’s) the amygdala (responsible for generating emotions, particularly negative emotions such as anxiety, fear and aggression) essentially ‘takes over’ and ‘overrides’ the prefrontal cortex.

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Above : under sufficient stress the prefrontal cortex (the seat of rational thought) is shut down, leaving the amygdala (the seat of intense, negative emotions like anxiety, fear and aggression) to ‘run riot.’

As such, the prefrontal cortex ‘goes offline’ leaving the BPD sufferer flooded with negative emotional responses and unable to reason, by logic or rational thought processes, his/her way out of them.

When the amygdala is ‘highjacked’ in this way, there are three main signs. These are :

1) An intense emotional reaction to the event (or external stimuli)

2) The onset of this intense emotional reaction is sudden

3) It is not until the BPD sufferer has calmed down and the prefrontal cortex comes ‘back online’  (which takes far longer for him/her than it would for the average person) that s/he realizes his/her response (whilst under ‘amygdala highjacking’) was inappropriate, often giving rise to feelings of embarrassment, humiliation, guilt, remorse and regret.

Resources:

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Early Trauma’s Effect On Development Of Id And Ego

 

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According to psychodynamic theory, originally associated with Sigmund Freud (but modernized by various psychologists since), the most crucial part of our psychological development takes place in the earliest years of our lives, between birth and about five years old (this is why very early trauma is especially damaging). A central concept of psychodynamic theory is that our minds comprise three parts, namely the id,  the ego and the superego, which I briefly describe below:

THE ID : According to Freud, the id can be viewed as the primitive part of the mind, driven by biological needs (such as for food and sex), which demand instant gratification ; it is completely unsocialized and its operations are unconscious. It is also described as acting according to the ‘pleasure principle‘ which means it is constantly and potently urging us to gain pleasure, irrespective of consequences (including harmful effects on others and harmful effects on ourselves).

THE SUPEREGO : Basically, the superego represents our conscience which we form by internalizing a sense of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ (or morality) derived from the influence of our parents, education, social environment and culture. Freud stated that whilst some of the operation of the superego is conscious, much of it also occurs on an unconscious level. Our ‘punishment’ for transgressing the superego’s exacting moral standards is guilt.

THE EGO : Freud said that whilst the id operates according to the ‘pleasure principle’, the ego operates according to the ‘reality principle’. Essentially, its task is to mediate between the deeply conflicting demands of the id, the superego and the outside world (and it is this constant need to mediate and reach an unending series of compromises that contributes much to the inner turmoil, tension and anxiety being human must necessarily entail, Freud helpfully informs us). It acts according to reason and will try to inhibit impulses that, if acted upon, would lead to harm; in other words, it takes into account the possible consequences of our actions.

I remember, as a first year psychology undergraduate, our lecturer telling us that the ego’s job could, perhaps not wholly inaccurately, be compared to that of a referee who finds himself constantly obliged to oversee a fight between a ‘crazed chimpanzee’ and ‘a puritanical, pious and forbidding grandmother.’

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Above : The perpetual battle between the id and superego, with the ego always having to act mediator.

It is theorized that if the infant is traumatized in early life, through lack of adequate care, s/he will fail to learn to control his/her basic drives and impulses and the development of his/her ego will be impaired. This can lead to various problems including :

  • poor ability to tolerate frustration
  • poor ability to inhibit impulses that may lead to harm (too likely to act in accordance with the dictates of the id due to deficits in ego development)
  • lack of consideration concerning the possible effects of one’s actions upon others / not taking into account the needs of others (including, as an infant, impaired ability to pick up on verbal and visual cues of the mother / primary care-giver)
  • impaired judgment
  • impaired ability to think logically and with clarity

It is thought that these problems occur as inadequate care that traumatizes the infant can damage the actual physical development of certain vital brain regions.

The infant who experiences satisfactory care, attention and nurturing, on the other hand, will learn to better control his drives and impulses, having learned from the mother to keep him/herself relatively calm and not exhibit unwarranted distress if his/her biological needs happen to not be instantaneously met (this ability is known as the competence to ‘self-regulate’).

Many of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD), which is linked to childhood trauma, reflect some the symptoms listed above.

 

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OTHER RESOURCES :

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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‘Distress Intolerance’ : Do Your Feelings Sometimes Feel Unbearable?

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The term DISTRESS INTOLERANCE refers to a frame of mind in which we consider the mental pain, anguish or discomfort we are experiencing to be UTTERLY INTOLERABLE AND UNBEARABLE so that we become frantic and desperate to avoid it/escape it.

The emotions we feel unable to tolerate usually belong to three main categories; these are:

  1. Emotions connected to sadness (such as depression, shame and guilt)
  2. Emotions connected to fear (such as dread, anxiety and terror)
  3. Emotions connected to anger (such as hatred, rage and frustration)

Those who have suffered severe childhood trauma, especially if, as a result, they have gone on to develop Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), tend to feel emotions particularly intensely, tend to have impaired ability to control their emotions, and tend not to be adept at self-soothing/ self-comforting/ self-compassion and are therefore much more likely to suffer from DISTRESS INTOLERANCE than the average person.

Unsurprisingly,the more we tell ourselves our feelings are unbearable and intolerable, the more difficult they become to manage. In effect, we start to feel bad about the fact that we feel bad. This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as meta-worry (worrying about the fact that we worry) and adds a superfluous layer of suffering to our already less than optimal mood state.

A simple example of such meta-worrying would be:

‘My constant worrying is ruining my life.’  (but doing nothing to address one’s worrying)

 

THE PARADOX OF TRYING TO ESCAPE AND ‘RUN AWAY’ FROM OUR MENTAL DISTRESS

Counter-intuitively, research suggests that when we mentally struggle hard to stop feeling our emotional distress, frequently the effect is actually to intensify it (rather like thrashing about in quick sand – we just sink deeper in).

HOW OUR BELIEF SYSTEM IS LINKED TO OUR STRESS INTOLERANCE :

Individuals who find distress very difficult to tolerate tend to have a set of beliefs that contribute to this intolerance; such beliefs may include :

  • it is essential I rid myself of these feelings immediately
  • these feelings are going to send me permanently insane
  • these feelings mean I’m a weak and pathetic person
  • these feelings are completely unacceptable

Such beliefs are sometimes referred to as catastrophizing beliefs and worsen our psychological state; cognitive therapy can help us to reduce catastrophizing thoughts.

 

HOW WE TRY TO ESCAPE OUR MENTAL DISTRESS

Three ways in which we try to escape our mental distress are as follows:

  • avoidance
  • dissociation (self-numbing)
  • self-harm

Lets look at each of these in turn:

1) AVOIDANCE :

For example, avoiding social situations due to social anxiety or avoiding going outside due to agoraphobia.

2) DISSOCIATING /SELF- NUMBING :

People may try to achieve this by using alcohol, drugs or overeating

3) SELF-HARM :

For example, some people cut themselves in an attempt to release emotional distress; this may be because the physical pain detracts from the psychological pain and/or because physical self-harm releases endorphins (the body’s natural pain-killers) into the brain.

 

WHY THESE METHODS DON’T WORK :

There are obvious problems with these methods which I list below :

  • whilst they may afford some short-term relief their long-term effects are damaging
  • relying in negative coping methods such as those detailed above erodes self-esteem and increases feelings of depression
  • continually ‘running away from’ and desperately trying to avoid difficulties means one never provides oneself with the opportunity to learn how to deal with them effectively or how to cope with distress using healthier methods
  • by constantly avoiding distressing emotions (e.g. by using drugs and alcohol) one deprives oneself of the opportunity to put one’s catastrophic beliefs (see above) to the test (e,g. the catastrophic belief that one’s feelings of distress are intolerable) and, hopefully, prove them to be inaccurate.

 

 

LEARNING DISTRESS TOLERANCE :

images 3 - 'Distress Intolerance' : Do Your Feelings Sometimes Feel Unbearable?

By learning to interpret distress differently (e.g. by changing our catastrophizing belief system in relation to distressing feelings) and how to develop healthier ways of coping with uncomfortable/difficult emotions we can start to put together a set of skills which will help us to cultivate distress tolerance (SEE RESOURCE BELOW).

 

RESOURCE :

TO DOWNLOAD DISTRESS TOLERANCE HANDOUTS FREE, CLICK THIS LINK OR CLICK ON IMAGE BELOW:

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BOOK :

 

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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BPD And Objects Relations Theory

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What Is Meant By Objects Relations Theory?
In broad terms, it is the theory of how people interact and relate to others, especially within the family and, more especially still, how the child and mother relate to one another. 
The theory stresses how dysfunctional relationships, especially in early life, can lead to the development of psychological disorders in later life.
Kohout’s Theory:
Kohout (1971), theorised that Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) had its primary origin in the way the mother related to, and interacted with, her baby/toddler between the ages of approximately 18 months and 3 years of age.
In particular, Kohout proposed, the baby/toddler is put at high risk of developing BPD in later life if s/he is brought up by a mother who does not allow him/her to psychologically separate from her, thus depriving him/her of the opportunity to develop and assert his own unique individuality.
For example, a child brought up by a mother with BPD may develop a high risk of developing the same psychiatric condition himself in later life. This is because such mothers tend to view their child as an extension of themselves, whose purpose is to fulfil her emotional needs, rather than allowing the child to psychologically differentiate him/herself from her, develop his/her own individuality and unique identity, and to learn to tend effectively to his/her own emotional needs. It is as if the mother sucks the life out of her child for her own emotional nourishment.
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Such mothers, Kohout suggests, can interact adequately with their baby/toddler when s/he (the baby/toddler) is in a state of neediness, but will become cold and rejecting when the child attempts to psychologically separate from her to try to develop independence and a proper, clearly defined, sense of self.
Kohout goes on to describe his theory that such a dysfunctional early upbringing leads to the child, in later life, developing a psychological defense mechanism known as ‘splitting’. I will describe what is meant by psychologists when they use the term ‘splitting’ in my next post.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).
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Copyright 2016 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Brain Areas That May Be Adversely Affected By Childhood Trauma

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We have already seen in other posts that I have published on this site that, if we have been unfortunate enough to have been subjected to severe and chronic childhood trauma, it is possible that this adversely affected how our brain physically developed during our early life.

And, if we have been particularly unlucky, this disrupted brain development could have made us highly susceptible to developing borderline personality disorder (BPD) in our adult lives.

 

Indeed, research involving brain scans suggest that sufferers of BPD can have abnormalities in the following brain areas :

– prefrontal cortex

– anterior cingulate

– medial frontal cortex

– subgenual cingulate

– ventral striatum

– ventromedial prefrontal cortex

– amygdala

 

Below : Brain Areas Which May Have Had Their Physical Development Adversely Affected By Our Traumatic Childhood Experiences, Particularly If We Have Developed Borderline Personality Disorder ( BPD) :

Borderline Personality Disorder BPD Abnormal Brain Structures - Brain Areas That May Be Adversely Affected By Childhood Trauma

 

What Are These Brain Areas Associated With?

The function of these brain areas are described below:

PREFRONTAL CORTEX:

– decision making

– conscious control of social behaviour

– speech / writing

– logic

– purposeful (as opposed to instinctual) behaviour

– planning for the future

– expression of the personality

ANTERIOR CINGULATE :

– decision making

– heart rate

– blood pressure

– impulse control

– emotions

MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX:

– decision making

– memory

SUBGENUAL CINGULATE :

– sleep

– appetite

– anxiety

– mood

– memory

– self esteem

– transporting serotonin

– our experience of depression

VENTRAL STRIATUM :

– decision making

– emotional regulation (the control of emotios)

– the extinction of conditioned responses

AMYGDALA :

– appetite

– emotion

– emotional content of memories

– fear

The Effects Of Disruption Of The Above Brain Areas :

Poor decision making ; poor control of social behaviour ; impaired ability to think rationally ; poor planning for the future ; dysfunctional personality ; increased physiological response to stress ; poor impulse control ; poor emotional control ; insomnia ; changes in appetite ; severe anxiety ; mood instability ; low self-esteem ; impairment of the brain’s ablity to make effective use of serotonin leading to clinical depression ; changes in appetite ; emotionally charged memories leading to flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive thoughts, panic attacks ; feelings of being under constant threat, fear, terror and extreme vulnerability.

Two types of therapy that may be useful are cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT).

Resources :

General Information :

NHS information about borderline personality disorder (BPD). Click here.

EBook :

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Self-help :

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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BPD And The Triune (3 Part) Brain

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Our brains can be divided into three parts (hence the term, triune brain) as follows:

1) Reptilian Brain (also called the brain stem):

This part of our brain is the oldest in evolutionary terms, and, therefore, the most primitive. It reacts to events instinctively without conscious deliberation ; in particular, it gives rise to :

– our fight / flight / freeze / fawn responses

– our immediate biological sexual responses

Essentially, then, this part of our brain is responsible for our survival. If we feel seriously threatened, it over-rides the two other parts of our brain (see below).

Also, if we drink too much, the influence of the reptilian brain becomes more dominant, as alcohol can significantly reduce the activity of the two (mammalian and neomamallian) higher parts of the brain; when drunk, therefore, we are more likely to get into fights or indulge in promiscuous and/or unsafe sex.

2) The Mammalian Brain (also called the limbic system or midbrain)

This was the second part of our brain to evolve. It is involved in :

– the generation and experience of our emotions

– memory and other aspects of learning

3) The Neomammaliam Brain (also called the neocortex) :

This is the most recently evolved part of our brain and is involved with :

– decision making

– conscious control of social behaviour

– speech / writing

– logic

– purposeful (as opposed to instinctual) behaviour

– planning for the future

– expression of e Triune Brain :

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Which Animals Do We Share These Three Parts Of Our Brain With?

1) Reptilian Brain :

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We have this part of our brain in common with crocodiles and snakes

2) Mammalian Brain :

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We have this part of our brain in common with cats and dogs

3) Neomammalian Brain :

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We have this part of our brain in common with chimpanzees and gorrilas.

What Has All This Got To Do With Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)?

If we have suffered significant childhood trauma, it is possible that the physical / biological development of our brains has been adversely affected. And, if we are unlucky, and, especially, if we have a genetic susceptibility, we may, as a result, go on to develop borderline personality disorder (BPD) as adults.

Indeed, a leading theory relating to BPD, is that the brain has developed in an atypical and detrimental manner in connection with our ability to regulate our emotions and control our behaviour.

As such, the neomammalian part of the brain (responsible for conscious control of behaviour, decision -making, planning and logic) may be underactive.

AND :

The more primitive parts of the brain (the reptilian brain and the mammalian brain) may be overactive and too easily to being triggered (e.g. even a very small threat may trigger great activity in the reptilian part of the brain which is responsible for the fight or flight response.

This combination of faulty brain areas can mean that individuals with BPD experience emotions, such as anger and fear, far more frequently, and far more intensely, than the average person; and, also, have a significantly impaired ability to exercise control of their behaviour, make sensible decisions, plan for the future and think rationally.

How Can BPD Sufferers Gain More Control Over Their Feelings And Behaviour?

In order to gain greater control of their lives, it follows from the above theory that it is necessary for BPD sufferers to make the neomammalian part of the brain more dominant and to quieten the more primitive brain areas.

Research shows that an effective way to do this is to practice mindfulness meditation – if possible, on a daily basis.

Resources:

61VHBbAyGwL. UY250  - BPD And The Triune (3 Part) Brain.

Above ebook now available for instant download on Amazon. Click here for further details.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Copyright 2016 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Five Types Of Dysregulation Linked To Childhood Trauma.

 

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I have written extensively on this site about the link between the experience of significant childhood trauma and the possible later development of borderline personality disorder (BPD).

One of the leading experts on borderline personality disorder is Martha Linehan (who developed the treatment for BPD known as dialectical behavioral therapy, or DBT) and, according to her widely accepted theory, those who have developed BPD as a result of their adverse childhood experiences are often affected by all, or combinations of some, of the following types of DYSREGULATION:

(If we are dysregulated in relation to a quality, it means, in this context, that we have difficulty controlling and managing whatever the specific quality may be.)

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Above: DBT has been shown to be an effective therapy for helping people who suffer from BPD and problems connected to various types of dysregulation (see five types below).

The Five Types Of Dysregulation We May Experience If We Have Developed BPD As A Result Of Our Childhood Trauma :

1) Emotional dysregulation:

We may have very volatile emotions that are so powerful we can feel controlled and overtaken by them. We may experience particularly intense and fluctuating emotions in response to our relationships with others, particularly our closest relationships.

Also, we may have difficulty identifying what exactly we are feeling (ie. find it hard to name some emotions we experience) and have problems expressing and experiencing some emotions.

2) Interpersonal dysregulation:

This means we might experience significant difficulties both forming and maintaining relationships with others. We may, too, constantly fear rejection and abandonment, leading to us becoming ‘needy’ and ‘clingy’ which, most sadly, can often cause the very rejection we are trying so ardently to prevent.

We may, too, find our feelings for others often vascillate dramatically from idealisation one minute, to demonization the next, possibly apropos (objectively speaking) very little.

3) Cognitive dysregulation:

This type of dysregulation may lead us to experience dissociation, depersonalisation and paranoia.

 4) Behavioural dysregulation:

Our behaviour may become extremely self – destructive : we may self-harm, attempt suicide, have promiscuous and unsafe sex, take unnecessary risks (such as reckless driving), become addicted to drugs and/or alcohol in a desperate attempt to numb and temporarily escape from overwhelming mental anguish, or develop eating disorders.

5) Self – dysregulation:

We may feel confused as to who we are and have a very poor sense of identity. We may feel different aspects of our personality are not well integrated so we can find ourselves acting in rather one-dimensional ways.

Our self-image can be unstable as can our values. We may be confused as to who we really are and what are beliefs and principals are ( indeed, these may frequently alter).

This can leave us feeling lonely and empty.

To read my article on the therapy devised by Marsha Linehan called dialectical behavioural therapy, click here.

 

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2015 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery