Category Archives: Ptsd/cptsd Articles

Failure Of Information Processing At Core Of PTSD

failure of information processing at core of PTSD

Research suggests (for examples, see below) that traumatic memories are not stored in the normal way (this theory was initially proposed by the psychologist and philosopher Pierre Janet) but non-linguistically as feelings / emotions and sensations (e.g. images, sounds, smells). This means that they cannot be properly articulated nor integrated into the individual’s personal narrative (story) in a meaningful way. This is why people frequently find trauma  extremely difficult to talk about.

Also, traumatic memories are stored in a fragmentary way (as opposed to in a way that allows them to form a coherent whole) and remain unmodified over time. 

Another feature of traumatic memories, according to Pierre Janet, is that they frequently cannot be remembered at will but are state-dependent (i.e. can only be recalled – in the form of flashbacks, for example – when the individual is in a similar state of consciousness to the one s/he was experiencing at the time of the trauma).

So, as we can see from the above, traumatic memories are not processed in the normal way and it is this lack of normal information processing that lies at the core of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One main theory related to this is that they (i.e. the traumatic memories) are prevented from being properly processed by the EXTREME LEVEL OF AROUSAL the individual feels whilst experiencing the trauma.

Supporting Evidence :

Research (Kolk and Ducey) into flashbacks (a central feature of PTSD) using neuroimaging has revealed that, when these flashbacks occur :

  • there is increased activity in areas of the right hemisphere which are involved with emotional processing
  • there is increased activity in the right visual cortex

These two findings support the theory that traumatic memories (in this case, flashbacks) are processed / stored in the form of emotions and sensations (in the case of the above research visual sensations).

Furthermore, Rauch et al (1995) conducted research showing that individuals experiencing flashbacks simultaneously experienced a decrease in activity in the part of the brain, located in the left hemisphere, called Broca’s area (a brain region involved with language) ; this finding supports the theory that traumatic memories are not stored in linguistic form.

Implications For Therapy :

The above supports the notion that effective therapy for PTSD should involve the individual afflicted by it being helped by the therapist to properly process traumatic memories so that they may be safely integrated into the person’s personal narrative.

RESOURCE :

NHS Advice On Treatments For PTSD – click here.

eBooks :

emotional abuse book   childhood trauma damages brain ebook

Above eBooks now available on Amazon for instant download. Click here for further information.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

PTSD And ‘A Sense Of A Foreshortened Future.’

sense of foreshortened future

The DSM 4 (Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Illness, 4th Edition) lists one of the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a ‘sense of a foreshortened future.‘ It is this specific symptom that I wish to concentrate upon in this article.

The psychologists Ratcliffe et al. (2014) suggested, based on their research, that this involved several elements of altered feelings, perceptions and beliefs, some of which I consider (although not exclusively) below.

NEGATIVE VIEW OF THE FUTURE :

An individual suffering from a ‘sense of a foreshortened future’ may have an extremely negative and pessimistic set of beliefs about the future ; these may include :

  • I will die young / soon / prematurely / imminently
  • I will never have a rewarding and successful career
  • I will never find a partner / have a family.

In other words, the individual who is experiencing a ‘sense of a foreshortened future‘ regards the future as bleak, empty a without meaning. 

  • It follows.of course, that the person’s feelings and emotions in relation to the future will also be negative – rather than being hopeful about it, s/he may fear and dread it.

 

ALTERATIONS IN PERCEPTION OF TIME :

Also, such a person may experience severe alterations in his/her perception of how time operates, including :

  • changes in perception of the passage of time and feeling unable to ‘move forward into the future’
  • changes in how PAST, PRESENT and FUTURE are experienced
  • changes in how the relationship between the PAST, PRESENT and FUTURE are experienced
  • the experience of flashbacks (in which the past is experienced as ‘happening now.’
  • a change in perception of the overall structure of experience

FEELING THAT LIFE IS OVER :

Freeman (2000) coined the term ‘narrative foreclosure’ which refers to a strong sense that one’s ‘life story has effectively ended.’ and that there is no further purpose to it, no further meaning that can be derived from it and no possibility that it will contain deep relationships with others or achievement of any kind. The individual affected in this way may also cease to feel s/he cares about anything or can be committed to any cause or project in the future.

In short, a sense of nihilism may prevail.

LOSS OF TRUST :

Also relevant to an individual developing a sense of a foreshortened future is that it is likely to be intertwined with a general loss of trust which may manifest itself through beliefs such as :

  • others cannot be trusted and pose a threat to me
  • the world is a dangerous place that I should interact with as little as possible

THE ‘SHATTERING’ OF ONE’S EXPERIENCE OF WORLD AND OF OTHER PEOPLE :

Greening (1990) puts forward the view that the individual’s ‘relationship with existence itself becomes shattered’. For example, the experience of trauma may leave the individual with a fundamentally altered views about the safety of the world (Herman, 1992) and his/her place within it ; the world seems meaningless, other people undependable and dangerous, and the self of no value.

LOSS OF PREDICTABILITY :

The individual, too, may come to see life as essentially random and unpredictable, feel that s/he can exercise no control over it, and that, therefore, there is no prospect of life unfolding in a dependable, coherent, cohesively structured way – s/he may feel s/he is no longer travelling through life on a reasonably straight set of tracks, but, rather, on tracks that twist and turn at random and from which one may be completely derailed at any time without warning. Indeed, Stolorow (2007) refers to how the individual may lose his/her sense of ‘safety’ and and of any meaningful ‘continuity’ in life.

Such a person may feel that ‘anything can happen at any time’ and that these things will, inevitably, be very bad. Because of this, s/he may feel perpetually trepidatious and vulnerable – alone in a an alien, sinister, hostile and frightening world ; a world in which there is no structure to hold one in place, no coherence and nowhere one can feel safe or a sense of belonging ; it can seem as if the foundations of one’s life are now built on sand rather than on solid ground and, as such, one’s life is liable to collapse at any time and without warning.

foreshortened sense of future

AN UNSHAKABLE SENSE OF IMMINENT DEATH :

Any future goals the individual had may now seem meaningless and pointless – even absurd ; linked to this can be a feeling that one is no longer moving forward in life and that there is no worthwhile direction in which life can go – any direction feels equally futile and devoid of meaning.

And, because the individual now sees only emptiness lying ahead of him/her in life this can translate into a perception that future time itself has somehow dissolved and has been replaced by a kind of ‘temporal vacuum’. This, in turn, leads to a feeling that nothing of meaningful substance lies between the present and death. Future time is anticipated as a void and in this sense ceases to be real – therefore, DEATH FEELS ABIDINGLY AND PERPETUALLY IMMINENT ; no buffer of a meaningful, substantive, solid, structured, ‘block of time’ is perceived to lie between NOW and DEATH’S OCCURRENCE ; instead, just a nebulous, indistinct haze of ‘virtual nothingness.’ (This is a difficult concept to relate to, or, even, comprehend  if one has not experienced such an unhappy state of being – or, perhaps more accurately put, non-being – oneself).

To all intents and purposes, therefore, to an individual suffering from a ‘sense of a foreshortened future, it feels as if one’s life is already over. Indeed, Herman (1992) noted that it was not unusual for those who had been affected by the experience of severe trauma reported feeling as if they were dead or as if part of them had died.

RECOVERY :

The psychologist and expert on trauma and its effects, Herman (referred to above), suggests that there are three main stages involved in recovering from PTSD – to read my article on these three stages, click HERE.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Hypervigilance And Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD).

hypervigilance and complex posttraumatic stress disorder

If we have grown up in a chronically stressful and traumatic environment in which we often experienced anxiety, trepidation, stress and fear we are at high risk of developing a fundamental, core belief (on a conscious and/or unconscious level) that the world is a dangerous place and that we need to be constantly on ‘red-alert’ and ‘on-guard’ in order to protect ourselves from sustaining further psychological injury.

In other words, we GENERALIZE our perception that our childhood environment was a dangerous place (because of the emotional and/or physical harm done to us there) into a perception that everywhere else/the world in general poses an on-going threat to us.

As a result, we may develop a symptom known as HYPERVIGILANCE.

HYPERVIGILANCE is a main symptom of complex PTSD (complex PTSD is a serious psychological disorder strongly associated with childhood trauma which you can read more about by reading my post entitled : Childhood Trauma : Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (With Questionnaire).

hypervigilance

HOW DOES HYPERVIGILANCE MANIFEST ITSELF?

Individuals suffering from hypervigilance may :

  • constantly analyze the behavior (including body language, facial expressions, intonation etc) of those around them in an attempt to determine if they pose a threat (and, frequently, they may perceive a threat to exist when, in reality, it does not)
  • be in a constant state of anxiety, irritation and agitation
  • have an exaggerated startle response to loud, unexpected noises
  • experience excessive concern regarding how they are viewed by others
  • be excessively suspicious of others / expect others to betray them ; this can give rise to paranoid-like states
  • perceive danger everywhere even though this is not objectively justified
  • easily be provoked into aggression (as a means of defending themselves against perceived threats from others ; in other words, such aggressive outbursts are a (primarily unconsciously motivated) DEFENSE MECHANISM.
  • PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS (including elevated heart rate, hyperventilation, trembling and sweating)
  • have false perceptions that others dislike them, are plotting against them or mean them harm
  • see minor set-backs as major disasters (this is a cognitive distortion sometimes referred to as CATASTROPHIZING.
  • frequently experience fear and panic when, objectively speaking, it is not justified
  • experience obsessive worry and rumination that is intrusive and hard to control
  • suffer from sleep problems (including very frequent waking and nightmares)
  • feel constantly exhausted (due to both sleep problems and the sheer debilitating effects of being in a constant state of anxiety)
  • social anxiety / impaired relationships / social isolation

Therapies For The Treatment Of Hypervigilance :

Therapies that may ameliorate symptoms of hypervigilance include :

Some medications, such as beta blockers, may sometimes also be appropriate, but, it is, of course, always necessary to consult a suitably qualified professional before embarking upon such treatment.

 

Above eBook now available on Amazon for instant download. Click here or on above image for further details.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Types Of Dissociative Amnesia In Complex PTSD

types of dissociative amnesia

We have seen how the cumulative effect of repetitive and chronic, traumatic stress during childhood is associated with the later development of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) and that many of those afflicted by complex PTSD experience symptoms of dissociation (e,g. Freyd, 1996 ; Peclovitz et al., 1997). [Click here to read my previously published post : SYMPTOMS OF DISSOCIATION : MILD AND SEVERE.]

We have also seen how dissociative symptoms may manifest themselves in different ways and that one such way is DISSOCIATIVE AMNESIA.

In this article, I intend to briefly recap on what is meant by the term DISSOCIATIVE AMNESIA, including a short outline of the DIFFERENT TYPES OF DISSOCIATIVE AMNESIA.

WHAT IS DISSOCIATIVE AMNESIA? :

If an individual is suffering from dissociative amnesia, it means that they are unable, for a period of time (usually relatively short periods of time such as minutes, hours or days, but, in mush less frequent cases, months or even years), to remember information about themselves / events in their past (sometimes referred to as autobiographical memory). And, perhaps more surprisingly, they may have periods of time during which they fail to remember a skill or talent that they have learnt (sometimes referred to as semantic memory).

For such memory loss to be diagnosed as dissociative amnesia the memory loss must be far more severe than in ‘normal forgetting’ and not accounted for by another medical condition.

dissociative amnesia

THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF DISSOCIATIVE AMNESIA :

According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), dissociative amnesia can be subdivided into the following types :

  • localized
  • selective 
  • generalized
  • systematized

Let’s look at each of these in turn :

1. LOCALIZED :

This involves not being able to remember a specific period of time. Often, this period of time will be the first few hours after the traumatic event has occurred (including the traumatic event itself) and can occur as the result of an isolated traumatic episode.

2. SELECTIVE :

This involves not being able to remember some (but NOT all) of the events that occurred during a specific (traumatizing) period of time (often, this may be the most traumatic aspects of the events which occurred during this time period),

3. GENERALIZED :

This particularly alarming and devastating form of dissociative amnesia occurs when the individual afflicted by it is unable to remember their ENTIRE LIFE including, remarkably, who they are and where they are from. Fortunately, this extreme form of dissociative amnesia is very rare.

4. SYSTEMATIZED :

This type of dissociative amnesia involves being unable to recall information associated with a particular category such as being unable to recall any memories associated with one’s abusive parent or associated with a particular location where one was traumatized. For example, I have virtually no memory of living in my first or second house which incorporated the years between my birth and my being about eight years old when my parents divorced.

 

To learn more about DISSOCIATION, you may wish to read one or more of my other posts on the topic (shown below):

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Yoga For Complex PTSD

yoga for complex PTSD

Overcoming Trauma Through Yoga: Reclaiming Your Body

 

Studies into the effectiveness of yoga already suggest that it can help to ameliorate both physical and psychological problems including diabetes, arthritis, fibromyalgia, depression and anxiety.

There also now exists evidence (e.g. van der Kolk, 2014, see below)) that it can help to reduce symptoms of Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (Complex PTSD).

Complex PTSD Gives Rise To Both Psychological And Physical Symptoms :

We have already seen how the cumulative effects of exposure to ongoing and repetitive trauma can result in the development of Complex PTSD and that the condition adversely affects the body’s physiology leading to impaired functioning of the autonomic nervous system and associated physical problems that can manifest in various ways including :

Furthermore, such symptoms are, in individuals with Complex PTSD, if not ongoing (though they can be : my own hyperventilation and physical agitation went on for years and the former continues to be set off by what most others would consider to be trivial anxieties, whilst my resting heart rate is still, worryingly, running at over one hundred beats per minute), very easily triggered by even relatively minor stressors ; this is because the individual’s capacity to tolerate stress is dramatically compromised, especially in relation to stressors that are linked (on either a conscious or unconscious level) to memories of the original traumatic experiences.

yoga for complex PTSD

Severe Physical Symptoms Of Complex PTSD May Prevent Or Impair Talk-Based Psychotherapy :

If such physical symptoms of Complex PTSD are severe and remain unaddressed there is potential for them to prevent or impair talk-based psychotherapy. For example, in my own case my physical symptoms were so bad that I frequently either could not attend therapy sessions (as I was unable to leave my flat), or, if I did manage to attend, was unable to focus or concentrate properly.

How Can Yoga Help Those Suffering From Complex PTSD?

Yoga that incorporates physical exercises, breathing exercises and mindfulness can be a more effective treatment of the physiological symptoms of Complex PTSD that talk-based psychotherapy because of the fact that it DIRECTLY ADDRESSES SUCH SYMPTOMS THROUGH BREATHING TECHNIQUES AND BODY WORK. Indeed, recent research supports the effectiveness of yoga in this regard – for example, van der Kolk’s study (2014), which I briefly outline below :

The Study :

  • The participants in the study were adult females with Complex PTSD who had not responded to the intervention of traditional psychotherapy
  • These same females were then randomly allocated to one of two groups as shown below :

GROUP ONE : The females who were randomly allocated to GROUP ONE underwent a TEN WEEK COURSE IN TRAUMA SENSITIVE YOGA (a special form of yoga that was developed at the Boston Trauma Center in the U.S.)

GROUP TWO : The females who were randomly allocated to GROUP TWO did NOT undergo this course.

The Results Of The Study :

The main findings of the study were as follows :

At the end of the ten week period :

  • Those in the treatment group (GROUP ONE) were significantly less likely still to meet the diagnostic criteria for Complex PTSD than those in the non-treatment group (GROUP TWO).
  • Furthermore, those in the treatment group (GROUP ONE) showed a significant reduction in depression and self-harm

Longer term studies have found similar results (e.g. Rhodes, 2014).

CONCLUSION :

Yoga may be an effective complementary treatment option to be used in conjunction with talk-based psychotherapies particularly when physical symptoms of Complex PTSD are so severe that they interfere with talk-based psychotherapies, as in my own case (see above).

A major benefit of yoga for the treatment of the physical symptoms of Complex PTSD is that it addresses such problems directly.

 

If you would like to read my related article : ‘TRAUMA RELEASE EXERCISES’, please click here.

 

eBook :

Above eBook now available for instant download from Amazon – click here for further details.

 

David Hosier Bsc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE) Read More →

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

What Are The Differences Between BPD And Complex PTSD? : A Study

difference between complex ptsd and bpd

Because there is a considerable overlap in symptoms between those suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) and those suffering from complex posttraumatic disorder (complex PTSD) , those with the latter condition can be misdiagnosed as suffering from the former condition (you can read my article about this by clicking here).

In order to help clarify the differences between the two conditions and help show how they are distinct from one another, this article is about a research study which sought to delineate these two very serious psychiatric conditions.

What Are The Differences In Symptoms Between Those Suffering From Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) And Those Suffering From Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD)?

A study into the different symptoms displayed by sufferers of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) involving the study of two hundred at eighty adult women who had experienced abuse during their childhoods and published in the European Journal of Psychotraumatology in 2014 compared the symptoms of those suffering from BPD with those suffering from complex PTSD.

The following results from the study were obtained :

SYMPTOMS SHARED APPROXIMATELY EQUALLY BETWEEN THOSE SUFFERING FROM BPD AND THOSE SUFFERING FROM COMPLEX PTSD :

Some symptoms were found to be shared approximately equally between those suffering from  borderline personality disorder (BPD) and those suffering from complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). The symptoms that fell into this category were as follows :

  • AFFECTIVE DYSREGULATION (ANGER) i.e. frequent feelings of intense rage that the individual cannot control (regulate)
  • VERY LOW FEELINGS OF SELF-WORTH
  • AFFECTIVE DYSREGULATION (SENSITIVE) i.e. feelings of hypersensitivity that cannot be controlled (regulated)
  • INTENSE FEELINGS OF GUILT
  • INTERPERSONAL DETACHMENT / ALONENESS i.e. feeling cut-off and alienated from others, isolated and apart
  • FEELINGS OF EMPTINESS

However, some symptoms were found to be significantly more prevalent amongst those suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) than amongst those suffering from complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) as shown below :

SYMPTOMS THAT WERE FOUND TO BE SIGNIFICANTLY MORE PREVALENT AMONGST THOSE SUFFERING FROM BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER (BPD) THAN AMONGST THOSE SUFFERING FROM COMPLEX POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (COMPLEX PTSD) :

 

eBooks :

    

 

Above eBooks now available from Amazon for instant download. For further details, click here.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

 

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Neurocounseling And Its Relevance To Treating Complex-PTSD

neurocounselling

The term neurocounseling refers to a form of therapies that seek to take advantage of the relatively recent neuroscientific discovery that the human brain has far more NEUROPLASTICITY than was previously believed to be the case.

What Is Neuroplasticity?

The brain’s quality of neuroplasticity can be defined as its capacity to be physically changed, not only during childhood, but over the whole life-span ; it is only relatively recently that the extent to which the adult brain can be physically altered (both in terms of its structure and its pattern of neuro-pathways) has been discovered.

Why Is The Brain’s Neuroplasticity, And Therefore Neurocounseling, Relevant To The Treatment Of Complex-PTSD Resulting From Childhood Trauma?

Neurocounseling and the phenomenon of neuroplasticity have important implications for the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and   complex-PTSD as sufferers of both types often have incurred damage to certain brain regions as a result of their traumatic experiences.

These brain injuries can include a shrunken hippocampus ( the hippocampus is a brain region involved in the processing of memories, including differentiation between past and present memories); increased activity in the amygadala ( a region of the brain involved in the processing of emotions and that is intimately related to the fear response); and a shrunken ventromedial prefrontal cortex (this region of the brain processes negative emotions that occur in response to exposure to specific stimuli).

Neurocounseling :

Neurocounseling is founded upon the premise that that symptoms of psychiatric conditions (both psychological and behavioral) are underpinned by maladaptive, neurological structures and functions and that these neurological structures and functions can be beneficial altered due to the quality of the brain known as neuroplasticity. It combines neuroscience with counseling techniques and, in this way, the individual receiving treatment is helped to learn new skills and new ways of thinking in an attempt to help correct the maladaptive physical development of the brain that has occurred in response to the person’s traumatic past experiences. Examples of neurocounseling techniques include :

  • incorporating biofeedback into the treatment plan ; this can help to treat emotional dysregulation – emotional dysregulation is a major symptom of PTSD and complex-PTSD and is linked to damage to the amygdala (see above)
  • incorporating neurofeedback into the treatment plan
  • mindfulness meditation training (one study found that this can alter the actual physical structure of the brain in just eight weeks)

Additionally, studies have shown that interpersonal psychotherapy and compassion focused therapy can lead to beneficial alterations to the brain.

Furthermore, research shows that neurocounseling can also be successfully employed to treat a range of addiction issues (including prevention of relapse and recovery management), sleep difficulties, ADHD, chronic fatigue syndrome and problems relating to aggression (all of which, potentially, can be linked to childhood trauma).

As understanding of the relationship between the way in which the physical brain operates and symptoms of psychological problems increases, it should be possible, in the future, to be apply neurocounseling more effectively to an expanding range of behavioral and psychological difficulties that have their roots in maladaptive brain biochemistry and physiology.

eBook :

Click here or on image above for further details about above eBook which is available on Amazon for instant download.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Retraumatization Caused By Psychiatric Care Institutions

retraumatiztion

Retraumatization :

If the trauma we experienced as children was severe enough, we may, as adults, at one time or another, require residential psychiatric care (such as inpatient treatment on a psychiatric ward in a hospital, as was necessary in my own case on several occasions).

Obviously, the quality of the care we receive in psychiatric facilities can vary very considerably ; unfortunately, this means that, if we are unlucky, we may find ourselves in an environment that not only fails to be therapeutic, but is actively retraumatizing.

In What Ways Can A Psychiatric Facility Retraumatize Us?

According to Fallot and Harris (2001), the ways in which we can be retraumatized in psychiatric institutions can be divided into two main categories ; these are :

1) BY THE SYSTEM (policies, culture, procedures, rules etc). For example :

2) BY THE RELATIONSHIPS WE HAVE WITH THOSE ENTRUSTED WITH OUR CARE (e.g nurses, psychiatrists etc)

Let’s look at each of these in turn :

1)  RETRAUMATIZATION BY THE SYSTEM. Examples of how this may occur include :

– lack of choice regarding treatment ; for example, being prescribed medication when a form of psychotherapy may be more appropriate and more effective.

– not being given the opportunity to give feedback to the professionals caring for us about how we feel in relation to the treatment we are receiving

– being treated impersonally and not as an individual but, instead, according to how one has been ‘labelled’ by one’s diagnosis (two individuals with the same diagnosis may manifest very different symptom and have very different needs. In the case of those who have been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, such individuals may experience the additional trauma as being regarded as ‘a trouble maker’ due to misinterpretation of the true causes of their behavior.

– constantly having to retell personal details relating to one’s psychological condition.

2)  RETRAUMATIZATION BY THOSE ENTRUSTED WITH OUR CARE.  Examples of how this may occur include :

– betrayal of trust

– feeling one is not being listened to and/or is being rushed when explaining one’s condition

– feeling one’s views are being dismissed /not taken seriously / invalidated

– being spoken to disrespectfully, insultingly or inappropriately

– being subjected to punitive ‘treatment’ methods (e.g. locked in isolation room without toilet or proper bedding)

– lack of communication / collaboration between patient and staff

My Own Experiences :

SECTIONING :  When my illness was at its worst, I was sectioned (despite my ardent protests) because it was felt I was a high suicide risk (which, in truty, I was) ; however, being sectioned accentuated feelings of powerlessness, humiliation and loss of autonomy

AGGRESSIVE/THREATENING PATIENTS : Unfortunately, some patients one is exposed to in psychiatric wards can be aggressive and intimidating, leading to feelings of being unsafe and constantly under threat

UNPROFESSIONAL STAFF : Sadly, occasionally one comes across staff who are not above behaving unprofessionally ; this can exacerbate feelings of mistrust

ELECTRO-CONVULSIVE SHOCK TREATMENT (ECT) : Because I was so ill – utterly unable to function and, indeed, almost catatonic at times, as well as a very high suicide risk, I was ‘strongly encouraged’ to undergo ECT treatment ‘voluntarily’ on several occasions ; in fact, though, there was no genuine choice as I was told that, if I did not undergo it ‘voluntarily,’ I would be sectioned and the act of sectioning me would, in turn, give the hospital the legal right to administer the treatment even without my consent. Due to the controversial nature of ECT treatment, this was an intimidating, degrading and, quite arguably, dehumanizing position in which to be placed. (To read my article about my experience of ECT, click here.)

COMPULSION TO ABSCOND :  Indeed, I often found the conditions to which I was confined so intolerable that, on three occasions, I absconded (each time with the intention of committing suicide – to read about one such incident, see my article On Being Suicidal (Or, Why I Carried A Rope In A Bag Around London For Three Months ).

Obviously, vulnerable patients who find themselves compelled to abscond, as I did, potentially expose themselves to a high level of risk in a multitude of ways.

The Trauma-Informed Environment :

Tailor and Harris (2001) state, based on the main ways in which retraumatization may occur, therapeutic environments that cater for the traumatized (e.g. those suffering from PTSD or complex-PTSD) should be trauma-informed. Trauma-informed environments should :

1) Be calm and comfortable

2) Provide the patient with choice

3) Empower the patient

4) Recognize the strengths and abilities of the patient

5) Involve the patient, as far as possible, in all decision-making processes.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Trauma Triggers : Definition And Examples

 trauma triggers
Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Anger May Operate To Soothe Emotional Pain

We have seen from other articles published on this site that many forms of childhood abuse/trauma can put as at an increased risk of developing problems controlling our anger as adults, particularly if the abuse/trauma that we have suffered has been serious enough to result in us developing a serious psychological condition such as borderline personality disorder or complex posttraumatic stress disorder.

Steven Stosny, author of the excellent book Treating Attachment Disorder, proposes that the act of getting angry may function, at times, to reduce the level of psychological pain we are feeling (it is known that borderline personality disorder can cause intense mental suffering, even agony).

How Can Anger Alleviate Mental Suffering?

According to Stosny, anger may lessen mental suffering by the chemical changes it produces in the brain, in particular by increasing levels of the neurotransmitter called norepinephrine.

‘Core Hurts’

Stosny further states that the mental pain our anger may help to soothe is pain that is linked to our core hurts‘ ; these are the painful feelings that we carry around with us that are linked to our childhood trauma / abuse and may include those of :

   – rejection

   – worthlessness

   – powerlessness

   – guilt

   – shame

   – being ‘unlovable

   – being an ‘outcast’

Anger As A Kind Of Addictive Drug :

If, then, as Stosny suggests, the act of getting angry, by producing chemical changes in the brain that serve as a psychological analgesic (i.e. pain-killer / self-soothing agent), it is possible that, just as we can become addicted to other pain-killing drugs such as morphine, that some of us may become addicted to anger as a means of coping with unbearable mental anguish.

Any Benefit Of Anger Likely To Be Short-Term :

However, the possible analgesic effect of anger are likely to be ephemeral. This is because, after the initial boost of norepinephrine, we are likely to regret, and feel guilty about, our behavior and find that, in the longer termm it has merely served to compound our already not  inconsiderable problems.

RESOURCES :

MANAGE YOUR ANGER DOWNLOADABLE HYPNOSIS PACK – click here.

eBook :

To view above eBook on Amazon, click here.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery