Category Archives: Posttraumatic Growth Articles

Twelve Signs We Are Recovering From The Effects Of Childhood Trauma

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These 12 signs that we are recovering from our traumatic experiences are as follows:

 

1) More able to live in the present:

We finally come to the full realisation that the past is truly over and that the trauma we experienced need no longer be central to our identity nor define us as a person

2) Greater inclination to contemplate the future:

This is due to the fact we are no longer trapped in our past nor obsessed with ceaselessly analysing it

3) Become less avoidant:

Before, we may have felt it necessary to avoid situations and people which reminded us of our traumatic experiences. However, we no longer feel compelled to do this as we find such reminders less difficult for us to cope with

4) Able to participate more fully in life:

Our energy is no longer exhausted by merely just about managing to cope and survive ; we can begin to start actively pursuing positive activities

5) Our trauma-related thoughts, feelings and memories become easier to deal with :

We still experience such thoughts, feelings and memories but no longer with the intensity which we previously found so overwhelming

6) Become less reliant on dysfunctional coping mechanisms :

For example,we may find we have more control over drinking too much alcohol, drug use, over-eating etc

Above: Posttraumatic growth. See number 12 below.

7) More able to control our emotions :

For example, anger and fear (emotional volatility and dysregulation is often one of the hallmark symptoms resulting from the experience of childhood trauma).

8) Reduction in negative thoughts about ourselves:

Another extremely common symptom of having experienced significant childhood trauma is the development of the false belief that we are an intrinsically bad person (click here to read my article about this phenomenon).

Part of our recovery involves rediscovering our positive qualities which may have been lying dormant or may have been masked by feelings of anger, self-absorption, resentment and cynicism.

9) Reduction in feelings of helplessness :

It is also extremely common for survivors of childhood trauma to develop a condition known as learned helplessness (click here to read my article about this).

However, when we start to recover, this feeling of helplessness begins to disperse and we subsequently become more aware that we are in a position to choose to do things to help ourselves and to exert some control over our future. In short, we start to feel more empowered.

10) Feeling that we are starting to get back some self respect :

(Many who experience childhood trauma lose their self-respect – this may involve self-sabotaging behaviour, continuously putting oneself at risk, believing oneself to be unworthy of love or happiness, complete lack of interest in appearance etc).

11) A cessation in the forming of unhealthy relationships:

If we have suffered severe childhood trauma, many of us develop what is known as a repitition compulsion (click here to read my article on this) which involves us (unconsciously) seeking out relationships with others who are likely to treat us very badly. We may, too, put up with bad relationships as we have developed (again, quite possibly unconsciously), a kind of ‘ I don’t deserve any better’ mentality.

However, with the return of our self-respect, we can decide to no longer tolerate such destructive relationships.

12) No longer feel like a victim:

Instead, we can start to concentrate upon posttraumatic growth. This may entail, for example, using our former deep suffering to initiate positive change eg becoming a stronger and more resilient person, gaining a better perspective on life, developing a better ability to empathise with the suffering of others, and to help them.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

 

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Escaping The Pain of The Past

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If we had a troubled childhood, it is not unusual to find we become preoccupied with certain elements of it, or even obsessed. In this way, we can let it define who we are now in a way which is not good for us, preventing us from enjoying the present, and stopping us from feeling any optimism regarding the future.

We become, essentially, prisoners of our past.

However, freeing ourselves from this darkest of prisons we have constructed around ourselves is not easy; in fact, it is a process which can be both long and arduous.

A very important part of this process is to allow ourselves to fully experience the feelings that the memory of our traumatic childhood gives rise to and not to repress them. In other words, we must allow ourselves to grieve for our past and for our lost or stolen childhoods.

KUBLER-ROSS’S FIVE STAGE GRIEVING MODEL:

Kubler-Ross’s model, which can be applied to the grieving process that relates to remembering a lost or stolen childhood (although the model was originally intended to describe the grieving process following the death of a loved one) involves five stages we may need to go through before our grief can heal. These five stages are shown below:

1) Denial – during this stage, we find it hard to believe our loss has actually happened; it can seem unreal. In the case of childhood trauma, for example, we may find it very hard to believe that our parent/s or primary caregiver had/have betrayed us.

Instinctively, we do not want to think ill of our parents, especially when we’re children.

This is why many children who are mistreated feel guilty; they (irrationally) turn the blame that should be directed at the parent/s onto themselves to protect themselves from the knowledge that their parents are bad/have behaved badly.

2) Anger – once such denial has been overcome, anger about one’s lost childhood can follow (to read my article about childhood trauma and anger, click

3) Bargaining – not everyone experiences this stage but it may include trying to make ‘deals’ with any particular deity one believes in through prayer (eg ‘ if you just get me through this, I promise…’ etc).

4) Depression – now that the reality of one’s loss really starts to sink in, together with its accompanying implications, one can finally allow oneself to feel the sadness evoked by the loss. It is important to allow oneself to fully feel this sadness, as it is cathartic in that it allows one to work through and process one’s pain (click here to read one of my related articles).

5) Acceptance – finally, we reach a stage at which we have processed what has happened to us, have psychologically integrated the experience and accepted it as part of our life experience. We have come to terms with it and no longer let it control and hinder us – we are ready to move forward in our life.

It is important to note, however, that not everyone goes through these exact stages – therefore, when we go through the process of grief, we need not worry if our evolving feelings precisely mirror this model.

After coming to terms with our adverse childhood experiences, there are various things we can do to help us move forward in our lives:

1) We need to stop seeing ourselves as a victim.

Clinging on tenaciously to our sense of betrayal, our anger and our blame of others serves mainly only to hurt ourselves. Whilst we cannot change the past, we can change our attitude to it and, by doing this, we can prevent the memory of it from inflicting further serious damage on our progress in life.

For example, we can start to consider what we may have gained from our experiences – perhaps it’s made us stronger or given us the empathy any insight to help others experiencing various forms of psychological distress.

2) Take a step back from life and consider what we really want from it, and then start setting ourselves relevant, challenging, but achievable, sub-goals and goals to help us to achieve our desires, whether these be to run our own business, help others, study or whatever else we set our heart on.

3) Surround ourselves with positive, like-minded, empathetic and supportive people (as far as this might be possible). This may involve joining a particular club, group or society or changing our social milieu.

4) Seek out opportunities, however small, to help us to achieve our sub-goals and goals. We are much more likely to achieve our goals if we choose something we really like doing and for which we have an aptitude. Whilst most of us need to make money, the importance of doing a job/having a career that is intrinsically rewarding cannot be over-emphasized.

Indeed, studies show that once we’re reasonably comfortably off, having more money, even vastly more, makes very little difference to our happiness in the medium and long-term. Some people waste a lifetime learning this, becoming trapped upon what psychologists refer to as a ‘hedonistic treadmill’.

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Hypnosis downloadable audio for help with getting over the past. CLICK HERE.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

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Childhood Trauma : Recovering and Flourishing

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We have seen in other posts on this site that not only can one recover from trauma, one can grow as a result (this is referred to by psychologists as POST-TRAUMATIC GROWTH; click here to read my article on this) and, indeed, flourish.

In this context, the psychologists Hubbert and So used the word ‘flourishing’ to mean arriving at a higher level of psychological functioning’ than one had prior to the experience of trauma. This may include :

– having a greater appreciation of life than one had had prior to the experience of trauma

– greater appreciation of relationships with others

– a better awareness of what really matters in life and a new ability to prioritize in relation to this new awareness

– a new appreciation of one’s own mental strength and ‘toughness’

– an ability and inclination to use adverse experiences in a positive way

– the development of a spiritual side to one’s nature

 

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THE FEATURES OF FLOURISHING :

According to Huppert and So, there are three CORE features of flourishing and six ADDITIONAL features.

Let’s look at each of these in turn :

 

CORE FEATURES :

– positive emotions

 

engagement and interest

(eg having interests which completely absorb us so that we lose the feeling of self-consciousness with which we are usually encumbered – rather like a young child lost in a world of play and imagination)

 

meaning and purpose

(having ‘meaning’ in life often means pursuing an endeavour for its own sake, rather than as a means to an end such as money and material gain)

 

ADDITIONAL FEATURES :

self-esteem

 

– optimism

 

resilience

(the ability to be able to cope with life’s set-backs without being overwhelmed)

 

– vitality

 

– self-determination

(being substantially in control of one’s own life –  eg not being blindly dictated to by convention, society or culture)

 

– positive relationships

 

STATISTICS :

The research conducted by Hubbert and So suggest that only about 18% of adults in the UK could be defined as ‘flourishing’. This compares with 33% of adults in Denmark, who, according to the statistics, are the most ‘flourishing’ people in Europe.

 

IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC POLICY :

Whilst most nations measure success by the country’s generated wealth (referred to as GDP, or GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT), the current government in the UK is now also looking at ways to measure people’s ‘happiness’ in order to determine national success, which theories such as the above will, no doubt, will help to inform.

The area of psychology which deals with human ‘flourishing’ is known as POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY (click here to read my article about this).

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Recovery : Writing as Therapy

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If we were emotionally wounded as children, writing down our thoughts and feelings, perhaps in a journal, can be extremely therapeutic. Or, if a we are particularly creative, writing a novel or poetry about early experiences can be extremely cathartic.

Alternatively, writing a letter to the person/people who hurt us, explaining how their treatment of us has affected us, can also be extremely helpful (whether or not we actually send the letter).

Indeed, it is not uncommon to hear writers say, because of the difficult early experiences they have had, that they actually feel compelled to write and start to feel unwell if they are somehow prevented from doing so.  Franz Kafka is an example of this – he had a very bad relationship with his father and, as well as writing novels (and the well known short story – Metamorphosis), he wrote a famous letter to his father (although he never actually sent it).

 

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Above – Franz Kafka

 

EXTERNALIZATION : One of the main reasons why writing about our early life trauma can be so effective at helping to feel better is that it gives us the opportunity to EXTERNALIZE what has happened to us, rather than keeping it painfully bottled up inside.

It also helps us to organize out thoughts about what happened to us, as well as helping us to gain a better understanding of how we have been affected by our experiences. Indeed, understanding what has caused us to have problems in our adult lives is of fundamental importance if we are to properly recover.

Furthermore, writing about our negative experiences helps us to put distance between them and ourselves  and allows us to view things more objectively. This can come as a great relief and lessen any painful, intrusive thoughts we may have been suffering.

 

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Recovery : Re-programming Our Subconscious

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We reprogram, to some degree, our subconscious minds every single day due to our various emotional responses to people, situations and events.

Very simply put, if we experience something we like we program our subconscious in such a way that we are encouraged to repeat it, and, if we experience something we do not like, we program our subconscious in such a way that we are encouraged to avoid it in future.

Unfortunately, if we have experienced difficult childhoods, it is likely our subconscious has been programmed in a negative way. This programming may well have helped us to survive our childhoods, but, as adults in a different situation, the programming is very likely now to be holding us back in life.

Most people do not realize that their day-to-day behaviour is massively influenced by experiences held below the level of conscious awareness, and, because of this, are not aware of how much their childhood experiences may be influencing, in a very negative way, how they currently experience their lives and how they function (or fail to function).

Indeed, childhood trauma may program our subconscious to form very negative beliefs such as:

– everybody is completely untrustworthy

– I am utterly unlovable

– I am worthless

– people will always reject me

– all people are a danger to me, I must attack them before they attack me

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For most of us, such negative programming will have its roots in our relationship with our parents/primary care-givers as they tend to have the most influence over how we come to perceive ourselves. However, other influences include friends, other relatives and the culture/wider environment in which we grew up.

Fortunately, we can reprogram our subconscious minds through various techniques such as self-hypnosis. Doing this is so useful because it is much easier for us to change our behaviour and how we feel about life by re-programming our subconscious than it is to use effortful, conscious will-power (although, of course, the latter should also be used).

A COMPUTER ANALOGY:

If we have experienced a traumatic childhood, it is likely our ‘software’ (i.e. our subconscious’) has been programmed in such a way that it is now dysfunctional. Essentially, we need to put in new ‘software’ (i.e. reprogram our subconscious).

This can be achieved by implanting new ideas and new ways of viewing things into our subconscious, in a consistent fashion, so that they take root in our minds and grow to such an extent that we find our lives significantly, even dramatically, improved.

For more about the effectiveness of hypnosis, I recommend my affiliated site (see also RECOMMENDED PRODUCTS in the MAIN MENU):

HYPNOSISDOWNLOADS.COM

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Copyright 2014 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Childhood Trauma Recovery : Rediscovering Our True Selves

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As we recover from our childhood trauma, we can start to get back in touch with our authentic self, untainted from the trauma’s effects. We can start to become the person we always wanted to be. Indeed, although our trauma did us incalculable harm, it is likely that it also forced us to develop strengths which we may well now be in a position to utilize to our advantage.

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Whilst, prior to recovery, our lives were dominated by reliving our trauma and acting out its effects, we can now begin to discard our ‘victim status’ and begin to pursue our aspirations, even though, to begin with, we may find this a rather frightening prospect.

We needed to be strong in order begin our journey on the road to recovery and we can now use this strength, and the self-discipline that went with it, to start living our lives in a productive, positive and fulfilling way.

At first this may well involve sensible risk taking, trial and error, and an acceptance that we might make mistakes.

Also, we can begin to discard those aspects of ourselves, caused by our traumatic experiences, that were dysfunctional and held us back in life. With a new understanding of why we developed these dysfunctional behaviours in the first place, we can also now begin the process of treating ourselves with compassion and understanding; in short, we can start to forgive ourselves.

We now know that these unhelpful behaviours need not be a permanent part of ourselves.

What is described above is referred to by many psychologists as post-traumatic growth – you can read one of my articles on this by clicking here.

RESOURCES :

MP3s :

Many interesting hypnosis MP3s relating to the above may be found by clicking here (or see my ‘RECOMMENDED PRODUCTS’ section by clicking on this in the MAIN MENU).

eBooks :

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Specific Ways In Which The Brain Can Physically Recover From Severe Trauma

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TO FIND OUT ABOUT MINDFULNESS TRAINING CLICK ABOVE

 

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I have previously written articles on how early life trauma can adversely affect the physical development of the brain leading to, for example, psychological difficulties in adulthood such as finding it hard to control our emotions and finding it difficult to cope with stress (eg click here).

I have also written about how the brain can, to some extent, physically repair itself (eg click here) by a process known as NEUROPLASTICITY.

In this article I want to take a more detailed look at how neuroplasticity might work to enable our brains to overcome the physical effects on it of our childhood traumatic experiences.

We now know that the brain’s circuitory is not, as used to be thought, ‘hard wired’, but changes over the course of our lives, INCLUDING ADULTHOOD, as a result of new experiences. Specific ways in which these physical changes to the brain might occur in adulthood include :

– NEUROGENESIS

– SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY

– SYNAPTOGENESIS

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BELOW : DIAGRAM OF A NEURON AND ITS CONNECTIONS.

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Let’s consider each of these in turn :

Neurogenesis:

Studies on rats have conclusively demonstrated that, over the course of their adult lives, they can grow new brain cells (neurons) which has the effect of changing their ability to process information. However, it is still not certain whether the same process occurs in humans – further research needs to be conducted.

Synaptic plasticity :

This refers to the fact that a process takes place in the adult brain whereby connections between neurons (brain cells) become strengthened and enhanced. Many studies have confirmed this beneficial process.

Synaptogenesis :

This refers to the process by which NEW connections are formed between neurons (brain cells). Studies show the process definitely occurs in animals, and it is likely that it also occurs in humans.

TRAINING THE BRAIN IN ORDER TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF NEUROPLASTICITY :

Practicing particular activities has been shown in studies to strengthen connections between the brain cells (neurons) in the specific brain region which is involved in the execution of that task.

The therapy MINDFULNESS takes advantage of this, improving our ability to relax and conquer stress and anxiety (click here to read my article on mindfulness).

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A famous study showing how neuroplasticity works involved looking at London taxi drivers who trained intensely for many years to learn the layout of the streets of London. By the time they had completed the training, the grey matter in their HIPPOCAMPUS (the part of the brain which deals with navigating and spatial awareness) had SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED IN DENSITY.

TO FIND OUT ABOUT MINDFULNESS TRAINING CLICK ABOVE

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David Hosier BSc Hons: MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

 

 

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Resilience : Distract, Distance and Dispute

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Those of us who have suffered significant childhood trauma, research has clearly indicated, tend to be, on average, less well equiped to deal with stress in adult life (this can be, in certain cases, due to the adverse impact the experience of trauma in early life has had upon the physical development of vital brain structures involved in responding to stress – click here to read my article on this).

However, all is not lost because research is now beginning to show that PSYCHOLOGICAL RESILIENCE is something that can be learned.

Individuals who are resilient are more able to cope with life’s inevitable difficulties, and, in some cases, not only survive very traumatic experiences but actually develop as human beings, grow and flourish in response to them (in fact, this is a new area of psychological study called POSTTRAUMATIC GROWTH – click here to read my article about this).

Benefits of being a resilient individual include :

– being better able to manage emotions arising from experiencing negative events

– being more able to cope with traumatic events

– being more able to cope with everyday stress

– are more likely to regard problems as manageable

– are more able to turn negative events to their advantage

– are more likely to think of ways in which negative events may actually sometimes give rise to new opportunities

– are more likely to perceive problems as challenges and take positive action to solve them, or at least to limit the damage that they might do

– experience fewer adverse physical effects of stress (e.g. in relation to blood pressure)

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL RESILIENCE :

1) KEEPING A DIARY – research has demonstrated that people who write about their negative experiences (eg in a diary or journal) are, on average, more able to cope with them than those who do not. This is thought to be due to the fact that organizing and structuring one’s thoughts ALLOWS US TO MENTALLY PROCESS THEM MORE THOROUGHLY which, in turn, is believed to diminish the negative emotional impact that they may have on us.

2) DISTRACT, DISTANCE AND DISPUTE :

a) DISTRACT – it is known that doing nothing but sit and ruminate about a negative event almost invariably makes us feel worse. It is usually better, therefore, to distract our thoughts away from the negative event (although, of course, it is never possible to be completely successful at this and we need to accept that thoughts of the negative event will continue to drift in and out of our consciousness).

Very simple techniques can be used to mentally distract ourselves, such as concentrating on an external physical object (this technique is often used in the meditative practice known as ‘MINDFULNESS’ – click here to read one of my articles on this), counting backwards in 3s down from 100, playing computer chess etc. It is important for us to use these distraction techniques as soon as possible because, in general, the longer we ruminate over a particular problem the harder it becomes to stop doing so.

Distraction works because it is all but impossible to think about two different things at once.

b) DISTANCE – this technique refers to keeping in mind that just because we interpret a situation in a particular way by no means implies the interpretation is accurate and reflects objective reality. In other words, just because we believe the interpretation is true, does NOT mean it is true.

Clinically depressed people, for instance, tend to interpret events far more negatively than would generally be considered to be objectively warranted.

In order for us to help ourselves to distance ourselves from the effects of negative events we can also pose certain questions to ourselves such as the following :

a) What things happen that are worse than my situation?

b) Who is worse off than me?

c) How can I interpret what has happened to me in a more positive way?

d) Despite the situation I am in now, what are the good things that still exist in my life?

e) Will what has happened matter in 10 days/10 weeks/10 months/10 years?

As well as asking ourselves the above questions, it can also be very helpful to think of someone we know who is resilient and good at dealing with life’s problems. We can then ask ourselves how s/he might manage a situation similar to the one we are in and then try to do likewise. Psychologists call this technique MODELLING.

c) DISPUTE – I have already stated that when we are depressed we tend to interpret events more negatively than is reasonably warranted. Psychologists sometimes refer to this tendency as suffering from AUTOMATIC NEGATIVE THOUGHTS (ANTs).

When we have such negative thoughts about certain situations we need to start getting into the habit of disputing/challenging them and trying to think of more positive ways of interpreting whatever it is that we are having negative thoughts about (this technique underpins a therapy known as cognitive behavioural therapy, or CBT – click here to read my article about how CBT can help us to overcome our negative thinking patterns).

BENEFIT-FINDING :

The term ‘BENEFIT-FINDING’, in this context, is used by psychologists to refer to how resilient individuals are sometimes able to identify new, positive opportunities that can arise when a seemingly negative event occurs. An example might be losing a job, but, in response to this, starting a business which becomes very successful.

In fact, it is definitely worth remembering that positive opportunities can arise from the most unpromising set of circumstances and doing so will help us to manage difficult periods in our lives.

RESOURCES :

 

a) HELP WITH RESILIENCE (PSYCHOLOGYTODAY.COM)

 

b) Develop powerful resilience MP3 – click here

 

 

Ebooks :

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Posttraumatic Growth – Techniques to Help Keep Remaining Symptoms of Trauma Under Control

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I have stated before that just because we have entered the phase of posttraumatic growth, this does not mean symptoms of trauma have been completely eradicated. Therefore, in order to be able to maximize the potential of our posttraumatic growth, it is very useful to know about techniques to manage re-emerging symptoms resulting from our experience of trauma, so that they interfere with our recovery as little as possible.

THE TECHNIQUES :

So, if, during our recovery/posttraumatic growth, we feel our symptoms are re-asserting themselves, we can employ the use of the following techniques:

– avoid interpersonal conflict (eg do not allow ourselves to be drawn into energy sapping and demoralizing arguments)

– talk to others about how we are feeling

– take as much time as possible for relaxation (eg gentle exercise,meditation, warm bath)

– indulge in as many enjoyable and pleasurable activities as possible, WITHOUT FEELING GUILTY ABOUT IT (see the activities as a form of necessary therapy)

– treat ourselves with compassion and do not blame ourselves for the effect the trauma has had on us

– keep to a routine; this is very important as it gives us a sense of predictability, control, safety and security

– make use of any social support systems as much as possible (eg friends, family, support groups). Research shows that those with a strong social support network in place cope better with the effects of traumatic experiences

– remember that many individuals who experience significant trauma find that ,once they have come through it, they have gained much inner strength and have greatly developed as people with a much deeper appreciation of life than they had before the traumatic experience/s occurred

– try not to avoid situations which remind you of the original trauma, where at all possible,as this is an effective way of overcoming the fear associated with such situations; avoidance keeps the problem going

– keep reminding yourself that human beings are extremely resilient; many people throughout the ages have been through appalling experiences yet have become stronger people as a result

– it important to remember that seeking professional help is not a sign of weakness or failure

Note : the above suggestions are based on advice given by the Academy of Cognitive Therapy.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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Posttraumatic Growth – Reconstructing The Life Story We Tell Ourselves

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We make sense of our lives by telling ourselves a story about it – however, this does not mean the story we tell ourselves reflects reality, not least because how we act and behave are often motivated by unconscious processes of which, by definition, we are unaware.

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Those who have suffered abusive childhoods very often grow up to believe that they are a ‘bad’ person (click here to read my article in which I explain why this is). Usually, this is the case because they are telling themselves an inaccurate life story (for example, part of the story they tell themselves might be : ‘I deserved to be badly treated as a child because I am a bad person’).

However, in order to recover from the effects of a traumatic childhood, and to start to enter a phase of posttraumatic growth, we need to adjust the story we tell ourselves; this can be achieved by understanding that our bad treatment in childhood was not our fault and that our adult behaviours, which might have been highly self-destructive, have their roots in our childhood experiences.

So, to slightly extend the example above,let’s suppose that the story we have been telling ourselves to make sense of our lives boils down to :

‘I was badly treated as a child because I am a bad person. My adult behaviour confirms that I am a bad person.’ (Old story)

HOWEVER :

once we understand and make sense of our traumatic experiences, what has happened in our lives takes on a whole new meaning, allowing us to reconstruct our life story to, for example :

‘The bad treatment I received as a child was not my fault. Problem behaviours that I have developed as an adult, resulting from my traumatic experiences, are understandable and forgivable. How I have been feeling and behaving as an adult is a NORMAL REACTION TO ABNORMAL EXPERIENCES. (New adjusted/reconstructed story we need to tell ourselves about our lives to allow posttraumatic growth to take place)

This new understanding of what has really happened in our lives is often a source of great relief and we need to ensure this enlightenment becomes a FUNDAMENTAL part of the new life story that we tell ourselves.

Changing our view of our life story in this way will NOT mean we suddenly become completely free of emotional distress; however, it can mark a point at which we can start to recover, and, with sufficient posttraumatic growth, become a much stronger and, indeed, thriving person.

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

 

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