Category Archives: Physical Health

Yoga For Complex PTSD

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Overcoming Trauma Through Yoga: Reclaiming Your Bodyir?t=childhoodtrau 21&l=am2&o=2&a=1556439695 - Yoga For Complex PTSD

 

Studies into the effectiveness of yoga already suggest that it can help to ameliorate both physical and psychological problems including diabetes, arthritis, fibromyalgia, depression and anxiety.

There also now exists evidence (e.g. van der Kolk, 2014, see below)) that it can help to reduce symptoms of Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (Complex PTSD).

Complex PTSD Gives Rise To Both Psychological And Physical Symptoms :

We have already seen how the cumulative effects of exposure to ongoing and repetitive trauma can result in the development of Complex PTSD and that the condition adversely affects the body’s physiology leading to impaired functioning of the autonomic nervous system and associated physical problems that can manifest in various ways including :

Furthermore, such symptoms are, in individuals with Complex PTSD, if not ongoing (though they can be : my own hyperventilation and physical agitation went on for years and the former continues to be set off by what most others would consider to be trivial anxieties, whilst my resting heart rate is still, worryingly, running at over one hundred beats per minute), very easily triggered by even relatively minor stressors ; this is because the individual’s capacity to tolerate stress is dramatically compromised, especially in relation to stressors that are linked (on either a conscious or unconscious level) to memories of the original traumatic experiences.

yoga - Yoga For Complex PTSD

Severe Physical Symptoms Of Complex PTSD May Prevent Or Impair Talk-Based Psychotherapy :

If such physical symptoms of Complex PTSD are severe and remain unaddressed there is potential for them to prevent or impair talk-based psychotherapy. For example, in my own case my physical symptoms were so bad that I frequently either could not attend therapy sessions (as I was unable to leave my flat), or, if I did manage to attend, was unable to focus or concentrate properly.

How Can Yoga Help Those Suffering From Complex PTSD?

Yoga that incorporates physical exercises, breathing exercises and mindfulness can be a more effective treatment of the physiological symptoms of Complex PTSD that talk-based psychotherapy because of the fact that it DIRECTLY ADDRESSES SUCH SYMPTOMS THROUGH BREATHING TECHNIQUES AND BODY WORK. Indeed, recent research supports the effectiveness of yoga in this regard – for example, van der Kolk’s study (2014), which I briefly outline below :

The Study :

  • The participants in the study were adult females with Complex PTSD who had not responded to the intervention of traditional psychotherapy
  • These same females were then randomly allocated to one of two groups as shown below :

GROUP ONE : The females who were randomly allocated to GROUP ONE underwent a TEN WEEK COURSE IN TRAUMA SENSITIVE YOGA (a special form of yoga that was developed at the Boston Trauma Center in the U.S.)

GROUP TWO : The females who were randomly allocated to GROUP TWO did NOT undergo this course.

The Results Of The Study :

The main findings of the study were as follows :

At the end of the ten week period :

  • Those in the treatment group (GROUP ONE) were significantly less likely still to meet the diagnostic criteria for Complex PTSD than those in the non-treatment group (GROUP TWO).
  • Furthermore, those in the treatment group (GROUP ONE) showed a significant reduction in depression and self-harm

Longer term studies have found similar results (e.g. Rhodes, 2014).

CONCLUSION :

Yoga may be an effective complementary treatment option to be used in conjunction with talk-based psychotherapies particularly when physical symptoms of Complex PTSD are so severe that they interfere with talk-based psychotherapies, as in my own case (see above).

A major benefit of yoga for the treatment of the physical symptoms of Complex PTSD is that it addresses such problems directly.

 

If you would like to read my related article : ‘TRAUMA RELEASE EXERCISES’, please click here.

 

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Forgiveness And Its Health Benefits

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Why Is Forgiveness Beneficial For Our Health And Prospects Of Recovery?

If we have suffered childhood trauma as a result of our parents’ abusive behavior or neglect, we may grow up feeling angry and resentful towards them. Furthermore, as a result of our childhood experiences, our own behavior in the past may have been dysfunctional and self-destructive and we may feel angry with ourselves about this.

Feeling angry towards our parents and/or ourselves, though, can act as a very major impediment to our recovery from the effects of our childhood trauma – so this is one vitally important reason why forgiving ourselves and our parents can be an extremely positive and helpful thing to do ; after all, feeling constantly bitter, angry and resentful is an exhausting and painful frame of mind to endure (in most cases simply harming ourselves rather than anybody else; this idea is pithily encapsulated by the well known aphorism that (to paraphrase) being filled with anger, vengefulness and resentment is akin to drinking poison and expecting our enemy to die. 

In short, being preoccupied with feelings of resentment keeps us trapped in the past and prevents us living in, and enjoying, the present.

Physical Benefits Of Forgiveness :

Also, the act of forgiveness, assuming it is freely chosen and authentic rather than something we have reluctantly forced ourselves to do, is most important for our physical health and I briefly explain why below :

      • being constantly angry locks our nervous systems into the ‘fight or flight’ state; this results in various physiological changes in our bodies which, in turn, makes us more susceptible to heart disease / attacks; it follows, therefore, that letting go of our anger and practicing forgiveness will make us less likely to experience such heart problems
      • chronic anger also increases our risk of diabetes
      • chronic anger increases the risk of high blood pressure

    Also, according to research carried out by The John Hopkins Hospital, practicing forgiveness can:

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Somatic Experiencing Therapy : Healing The Dysfunctional Nervous System

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Dr Peter Levine’s somatic experiencing therapy is predicated upon idea that the disturbing symptoms of PTSD are substantially caused by the adverse effect our traumatic experiences have had on the way our body and nervous system works.

In essence, Levine contends that if we are suffering from PTSD it means we have become stuck’ in the fight/flight/freeze response.

In order to understand this, consider how wild animals respond to danger; let’s use the example of a zebra :

If a zebra is stalked by a tiger, it will enter the flight/fight state and run away. Whilst running away, it is in the fight/flight state, meaning that it will be highly physiologically aroused (e.g. fast heart rate) in order to provide it with the energy to (hopefully) escape.

If it is lucky enough to escape to safety, the zebra’s level of physiological arousal will quickly return to normal because the immediate danger has passed.

In other words, the zebra only remains in fight/flight mode for a short period of time to deal with immediate danger.

Below – The Physiological Effects Of Being In Fight/Flight Mode :

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Getting ‘Stuck’ In Fight/Flight/Freeze Mode :

However, in sharp contrast, individuals suffering from PTSD have, like the zebra had their fight/flight response triggered by their traumatic experience but, unlike the zebra, remain stuck in this state of heightened physiological arousal even though the danger has passed; it is this, according to Levine, that causes the distressing symptoms of PTSD.

The Root Cause Of The Symptoms Of Trauma : Trapped ‘Survival Energy’ :

Levine states that, in those suffering from PTSD, the initial great stress caused by our traumatic experience, whatever this may have been (including the complex, cumulative effects of childhood trauma such as emotional abuse) leads to the production of ‘survival energy’ which is not discharged once the traumatic experience is over but remains bound up and trapped in the body.

It is this trapped survival energy that, according to Levine, is at the root of the debilitating symptoms of traumas

The Need To Discharge The Trapped ‘Survival Energy.’

Levine suggests that discharging the trapped survival energy held in our bodies will allow our heightened physiological state and the operation of our nervous systems to return to normal and thus alleviate our symptoms of trauma.

Levine’s somatic experiencing therapy is designed to help us achieve this therapeutic discharge of survival energy.

In order to find out more about somatic experiencing therapy you may find the link provided here useful.

Resource :

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

 

 

 

 

 

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Childhood Trauma May Accelerate Aging Process And Reduce Life Expectancy

 

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Childhood trauma may accelerate the aging process : this article sheds light on the possible reasons.

Research conducted by Puterman (University of Columbia, Canada), a specialist in stress and aging, suggests that those of us who suffered significant trauma and consequential chronic feelings of stress as children may :

a) be more prone to disease and illness as adults

b) live shorter than average lives

Why Might This Be?

According to Puterman, this may be due to the adverse effects the stress of our childhoods had on our body’s cells.

More specifically, Puterman suggests that early, protracted exposure to stress may shorten our telomeres (telomeres are located on the end of our chromosomes).

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Above : Telomeres under the microscope.

 

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Above : Childhood trauma may prematurely age telomeres.

Why Do Shortened Telomeres Matter?

Telomeres serve to protect our chromosomes and, if shortened by early life stress, do not perform their task so effectively ; this may lead to the cells in our body aging and dying prematurely, Puterman suggests.

Puterman is careful to point out, however,  that experiencing stressful events in childhood does not necessarily cause the shortening of telomeres in any simple, direct way, but, rather, the greater the number of traumas we suffer, the greater their duration and the greater their intensity, the higher our risk is that our telomeres will incur damage.

Puterman’s research findings also suggested (based on the study of 4,600 individuals) that social and psychological stressful events that occur during childhood have a more damaging effect on telomeres than do stressors relating to the particular family’s financial situation.

Other Ways Childhood Trauma Adversely Impacts Upon Our Physical Health :

We know, too, that those who have experienced significant childhood trauma are more likely than average to :

 

All of the above, of course, may significantly undermine our physical health, and, even, ultimately, lead to terminal disease and illness.

 

TO READ MY POST ENTITLED : ‘How Childhood Trauma Can Reduce Our Life Expectancy BY 19 Years‘, CLICK HERE.

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Why Is Physical Illness More Common In PTSD Sufferers?

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If we have suffered from significant childhood trauma leading to the development of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in our adult lives this also puts us at increased risk of developing various unpleasant physical symptoms. This is because the trauma has had chemical effects in our brain (leading to our PTSD) which can have knock-on adverse effects upon our body. I provide examples of the kind of symptoms that may result below :

SYMPTOMS :

  • increased rate of heartbeat
  • stomach / digestive problems
  • rapid and shallow breathing (often referred to as hyperventilation)
  • shaking / trembling / tremors / localized muscle spasms
  • feeling faint / light-headedness
  • sweating

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DISEASES AND DISORDERS :

A positive correlation exists between the incidence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a population and the incidence of certain physical diseases and disorders (shown below) in that same population. However, further research needs to be conducted in order to ascertain whether having post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases one’s risk of suffering these conditions or whether having such conditions makes one more vulnerable to developing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Some of the diseases and disorders associated with PTSD are as follows :

  • cardiovascular disease
  • increased probability of suffering from heart attacks
  • IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)
  • headaches
  • certain autoimmune disorders (eg those causing problems with the skin)
  • pregnancy complications
  • miscarriage
  • preterm contractions
  • obesity

 

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Above : PTSD physically, biologically and chemically alters the brain – these changes may lead to physical symptoms, diseases and disorders in some sufferers, on top of the immense psychological pain and suffering it causes all who are unfortunate enough to have the condition.

 

Why Do Such Links Between PTSD And These Disorders Exist?

Various theories have been put forward in an attempt to explain why such links between PTSD and physical disorders such as those listed above exist.

  1. Increases in stress hormones such as cortisol over time have an adverse physical effect upon the heart and cardiovascular system.
  2. PTSD can lead to unhealthy ways of trying to cope with mental pain and suffering such as excessive drinking, excessive smoking and the ingestion of dangerous narcotics and overeating (so-called ‘comfort eating’) all of which, in turn, can lead to declining physical health.
  3. PTSD sufferers tend also to be seriously depressed and therefore lethargic – this can mean that PTSD sufferers take very little physical exercise leading to a greater likelihood of developing physical health problems.
  4. PTSD causes a change in the balance of chemicals in the brain and these changes, in turn, may cause yet further changes adversely affecting the immune system and various bodily organs.
  5. Changes in certain chemicals that negatively affect the mind also adversely affect the stomach.

 

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Always Tired? Is ‘Adrenal Fatigue’ A Real Syndrome?

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We have seen from other articles that I have published on this site that significant and protracted childhood trauma can physically damage the developing brain and, in particular, the development of a brain region known as the AMYGDALA.

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One of the functions of the amygdala is to regulate our emotions, including fear and anxiety, and, as a result of this damage, it can become dysfunctional.

This dysfunction may result in the amygdala becoming ‘stuck in overdrive’ leading us to feel constantly highly anxious and fearful – in other words, locked into a perpetual state of ‘fight or flight’.

When we are in a state of ‘fight or flight’, our bodies undergo certain physical effects; these include :

– increased heart rate

– increased blood pressure

– rapid breathing

– an increase in the production of the stress hormone known as cortisol

– an increase in the stress hormone known as adrenalin

According to Adrenal Fatigue theory, when we are subjected to chronic, intense stress, such as that described above, the adrenal gland becomes dysfunctional resulting in symptoms such as those listed below:

– constant, extreme tiredness

– an impaired ability to concentrate

– difficulty in getting out of bed in the morning

However, it is important to note that, at the time of writing, there exists insufficient evidence to establish Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome as a formally recognized disorder in the world of mainstream medicine.

 

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Conclusion:

If  ‘adrenalin fatigue syndrome’ is not, in fact, a real condition, being diagnosed with it by an alternative therapist might detract from the real issue which could be, for example, depressionchronic fatigue syndrome, heart failure, diabetes, poor diet, poor quality sleep or anemia, all of which conditions may produce symptoms of extreme and chronic fatigue.

Resource:

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Downloadable MP3 or CD for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome : click here 

 

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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How Emotional Suffering Is Like Physical Pain.

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At the height of my own mental turmoil, which lasted many years, my emotional distress was so intense that the only way I could carry on was to remind myself constantly that I could escape it through suicide. The major part of each day I spent obsessively going over and over in my mind how I could accomplish it successfully.

images 2 1 - How Emotional Suffering Is Like Physical Pain.

I wanted a method with a one hundred per cent guarantee of working; however, whenever I came up with a method I thought I’d be brave enough to undertake, I always also came up with an idea of how it, just conceivably, might fail.

However remote the chance of this failure was, it would prevent me going ahead as I was terrified that I would end up not only suicidally depressed, but additionally crippled, quadriplegic, and/or brain damaged. (A previous suicide attempt I’d made, which I thought fool-proof, left me in a coma for five days and easily could have caused me to incur brain damage).

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Furthermore, (and I am embarrassed to admit this) although I am not a religious person, in my paranoid state I was afraid that if I succeeded in killing myself I might be cast into hell and tortured for all eternity (actually, this is a common fear many deeply, clinically depressed people have : to sleep, perchance to dream, as Hamlet metaphorically and euphemistically expressed it). I would then go over and over in my mind all the different kinds of torture I might have to endure.

On one’s own, unable to sleep at 3am (cue thunder clap, lightning strike and eerily howling wind), this is a truly terrifying state of mind to be in.

When I would try to describe to doctors, therapists and psychiatrists how I felt (impossible – this is one of the worst aspects of mental illness, the sheer incommunicability of the depth and intensity of one’s suffering) I would explain, as best I could, that I felt a constant pain in my head which tortured me, and that this pain was neither wholly physical nor wholly mental; rather, it was some indefinable combination of the two.

Why is such emotional suffering so painful, even agonizing? In fact, a look at the neurology underlying emotional pain helps us to understand at least part of the answer.

 

The Underlying Neurology Of Emotional And Psychological Suffering:

Recent studies (eg Randle et al; DeWall et al) have highlighted how the brain may respond to emotional pain (such as rejection) in a similar manner to how it responds to physical pain.

Indeed, brain scans have revealed that, irrespective of whethet it’s the case that a person is experiencing emotional pain or physical pain, the same brain regions become highly activated. These two brain regions are:

1) THE SECONDARY SOMTASENSORY CORTEX

2) THE DORSAL POSTERIOR INSULA

Because the brain seems to interpret physical and emotional pain in similar ways, it is perhaps not surprising that some evidence has been found suggesting some pain killer medication (originally intended to treat only physical pain) may help to ameliorate emotional pain/mental distress, such as aspirin and Tylenol. However, this idea remains (currently) controversial due to the paucity of reliable data.

More research needs to be conducted – at the time of writing the jury remains out.

The Cycle Of Pain:

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Above: The cycle of pain shown above is applicable to both mental and physical pain:

 

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Studies Show Pain Of Rejection Worse Than Physical Pain

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Have you ever experienced intense, almost unbearable, emotional pain and mental anguish as a result of a rejection?

I remember, on occasions in the past, trying to explain to my psychiatrist how the turmoil in my mind resembled an excruciating, almost physical, pain.

Such pain, of course, is likely to be particularly acute and devastating if that rejection comes from a parent, or, indeed, from both parents.

As I have stated in other posts on this site, I have the dubious distinction of having been rejected by both my parents on separate occasions – by my mother when I was thirteen years old and then, some years later, by my father and step-mother, making me homeless and, therefore,  humiliatingly necessitating me to be taken in to the home of a friend’s parents, to whom I remain grateful (incidentally, my step-mother was deeply religious and founded a charity for the homeless – Watford New Hope Trust – a cruel irony that was far from lost on me, let me assure you).

Recent studies have shown that the emotional pain of rejection activates the same area of the brain that physical does; the brain area involved is known as: the ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX.

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Further evidence that the way we experience emotional pain is similar  to how we experience physical pain comes from the finding that the medication Tylenol, which is taken to reduce feelings of physical pain, also ameliorates sensations of emotional pain.

Also, a study connected to Purdue University, Australia, compared two groups of individuals:

GROUP 1 : were asked to recall a physically painful event that had taken place in the previous 5 years.

GROUP 2 : were asked to recall an emotionally painful event which had taken place in the last 5 years.

RESULTS : Those in GROUP 2 (who relived the adverse emotional event) reported experiencing higher levels of pain induced by this replaying in their minds of this unhappy event than those in GROUP 1 experienced as a result of recalling their physically painful event.

One reason for the level of pain we may feel as a result of rejection is that we have a marked tendency to blame ourselves for the rejection (we may infer we must be in some way lacking) even though such self-blame is very often objectively unwarranted.

Also, emotional pain caused by a rejection can keep coming back to haunt us, again and again and again…we may even obsessively think about our rejection and the person who rejected us. When it comes to physical pain, however, once it is over the memory of it does not result in us re-experiencing it.

Evolutionary Explanation Of Why Rejection Can Be So Painful:

We have evolved to find rejection painful as our distant ancestors lived in groups which increased their likelihood of survival. Rejection by the group would have endangered their survival so they evolved to find social rejection painful as it discouraged them from behaving in ways that could result in such rejection (just as, for example, we have evolved to find coming into direct contact with fire painful to help to prevent burning and damaging our skin).

And rejection by parents, for our ancestors, could easily prove fatal.

Resources:

Dealing With Rejection (downloadable hypnosis MP3). Click here.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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How PTSD Can Leave Us Feeling Unremittingly Exhausted.

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Many sufferers of PTSD feel constantly exhausted and, in this article, I want to examine the reasons why:

Causes of exhaustion in the PTSD sufferer:

1) Disrupted sleep.

At my illest, I was having to retire to bed at 3pm and would not re-emerge until about 15 hours later (ie 6am the next day).The sleep itself was very low quality, extremely broken and unrefreshing; I would wake up literally dozens of times and the sleep I did get was full of hideous, terrifying nightmares.

Indeed, badly disrupted sleep is very common in individuals who suffer from PTSD. The person may have frequent and intense nightmares, suffer broken sleep, take a long time to fall asleep and wake up undesirably early in the morning, unable to get back to sleep despite feeling exhausted (indeed, this is also one of the hallmarks of major depression).

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PTSD sufferers who experience such symptoms of insomnia wake up feeling both mentally and physically unrefreshed and, as a consequence, find both their physical and mental abilities are impaired.

Also, as a result of not sleeping properly, they often find their ability to cope with everyday life is greatly diminished and their vulnerability to the adverse effects of stress are greatly increased.

2) Psychological strain.

People with PTSD are constantly tormented by, and attempting to fight, extremely painful memories and distressing intrusive thoughts. This, too, is exhausting.

3) Effort of ‘putting up a front’/hiding behind a false self.

Many sufferers of PTSD do not want others  (such as acquaintances and work associates) to know about their illness so feel they need to ‘wear a social mask’ and pretend that ‘everything’s fine’. Keeping up such a pretence is mentally taxing and extremely tiring.

4) Effects on diet.

People with PTSD may lose their appetites and consequently under-eat, leading to malnutrition and deprivation of important minerals and vitamins which may cause increased fatigue.

5) Workaholism.

Woody Allen, who has written, directed and, often, acted in one film a year for many decades says he works so much to distract himself from pessimistic thoughts and existential angst. In a similar way, one way some PTSD sufferers try to cope with their disturbing thoughts and feelings is to immerse themselves in work in order to divert their minds, working each day for excessive hours ( up to 20 hours a day, in the most extreme cases).

Consequences of extreme tiredness/exhaustion in the PTSD sufferer:

The consequences of the great fatigue the PTSD sufferer may experience include:

1) Lacking in mental and physical energy

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Above: Exhaustion from PTSD? (Pussycat Traumatic Stress Disorder).

2) Poor concentration

3) Poor decision making / poor judgment

4) Irritable mood

5) Extreme tiredness can lead to the development of depression (on the other hand, depression can also lead to constant tiredness)

6) Reduced ability to cope with everyday life

7) Impaired work performance / leads to more days absent from work

8) Impaired social life

9) Increased risk to physical health

Resources:

Deep Sleep Program Insomnia Cure – click here for information

Overcome Fatigue And Lethargy Self-Hypnosis Download – click here for more information

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Copyright 2015 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Is Your Anxiety Caused By Hyperventilation? A Look At The Science.

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Hyperventilation (deriving from HYPER = TOO MUCH and VENTILATION = AIR MOVEMENT) refers to a type of breathing which is too deep and too rapid.

Such breathing results in :

1) too much oxygen

and

2) too little carbon dioxide

entering the blood stream.

Indeed, severe hyperventilation can result in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood stream falling by 50℅ within sixty seconds.

Why is a reduction of the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood undesirable?

A significant reduction of the normal amount of carbon dioxide circulating in the blood stream is undesirable because it raises the pH levels in nerve cells.

This, in turn, makes the nerve cells too excitable and can trigger the fight/flight response (click here to read my article about this). The physiological effect of this can then lead to symptoms such as those I list below:

– sweating

– dizziness/faintness/light – headedness

– tingling sensations in the hands and feet

– rapid heart beat ( also known as tachycardia) and/or heart palpitations

– chest pains/heart burn

– a dry mouth

– muscle tension and/or muscle spasms

– shortness of breath/a choking sensation

– difficulty swallowing

– fatigue and/or feelings of weakness

Such symptoms of anxiety can occur very quickly once we start to hyperventilate ; within a minute, in fact.

 

Lack of awareness:

Many people whose anxiety is linked to the fact that they hyperventilate do not realise that their maladaptive breathing style is significantly contributing to their symptoms. Indeed, many do not realise that they are hyperventilating. I myself hyperventilated for years without being properly aware of the fact and without fully appreciating how important it is to train oneself to stop doing it. I suppose an (irrational) part of me felt that such a simple change could not make a significant difference to how I was feeling.

 

Two main types of hyperventilation:

These two types are:

1) At rest, breathing from the upper chest instead of from the diaphragm

2) At rest, breathing through the mouth instead of the nose

Many people who suffer from anxiety breathe from the upper chest whilst at rest. Whilst breathing from the upper chest is normal when we are in imminent danger (as it prepares us for ‘ fight or flight’ by introducing extra oxyden into the blood stream) and evolved to help our distant ancestors avoid danger from predators (eg by feeding muscles with extra oxygen to help them run away from the threat as fast as possible), such breathing was designed by evolution to be a temporary response triggered by a life-threatening, physical danger – so it only rarely serves a useful purpose for us today.

On the contrary, in fact, continuous, chronic breathing in this way can effectively permanently trap us in the ‘ fight/flight’ response.

This, in turn, can lead us feel under threat, nervous, fearful and in danger chronically.

 

Examples of conditions to which hyperventilation can be particularly relevant:

The three examples are :

social phobia

PTSD/flashbacks (click here to read my article about childhood trauma and PTSD)

panic disorder

1) Social phobia:

A person with social phobia may have their tendency to hyperventilate triggered by stressful social situations. The hyperventilation, in turn, will lead to increased symptoms of anxiety which can then result in the person’s hyperventilating becoming more severe still. In this way, a vicious cycle can develop (see below).

images47 - Is Your Anxiety Caused By Hyperventilation? A Look At The Science.

2) PTSD/flashbacks:

A similar vicious cycle may occur when anxiety symptoms are triggered by a flashback.

3) Panic disorder:

In extreme cases, the vicious cycle of anxiety/panic can increase symptoms of anxiety to a level at which a panic attack occurs.

images 214 - Is Your Anxiety Caused By Hyperventilation? A Look At The Science.

Based on the science above, some people find that breathing into a paper bag helps when experiencing a panic attack, as doing so increases carbon dioxide levels in the blood stream and returns them to normal.

Resource:

Learn Deep Breathing Relaxation Techniques Rapidly. CLICK HERE.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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