Category Archives: Physical Health

Acrimonious Divorces May Damage Children’s Immune Systems

acrimonious divorces may harm children's immune systems

A study conducted by Murphy et al (2017) suggests that childhood trauma (and, specifically, in this case, the experience, as a child, of having had parents who divorced acrimoniously) can adversely affect the immune system.

The study involved 201 ‘normal’ adult participants whose parents had separated during their childhoods. The participants were divided into two categories :

CATEGORY ONE : Those whose parents had separated amicably and civilly

CATEGORY TWO : Those whose parents had separated acrimoniously (e.g. frequently shouted and yelled at one another or refused to talk to one another)

RESULTS OF THE STUDY :

It was found that those adults in category two (i.e. those whose parents had separated acrimoniously when they were children) had weaker immune systems than those adults in category one (i.e. those who had parents who had separated amicably when they were children).

This was inferred from the fact that it was found that those from group one were less prone to common colds and similar conditions.

(It should be noted, however, that a sample of 201 for such a study is low which could affect the validity of the findings and that, because of this, further, similar studies need to be conducted using larger samples of participants).

effect of divorce on immune system

THE THEORY THAT UNDERLIES THESE FINDINGS :

The theory that underlies these findings is that NEGATIVE EMOTIONS IN GENERAL (such as depression, anxiety, chronic stress etc) harm individuals’ physiology and inflammatory processes and this harm may still be apparent decades later. However, precise details of the mechanism that underpins this harmful process is not, as yet, entirely understood (so, clearly, more research will also be necessary to resolve this matter). Assuming this theory is correct (and there is much evidence it is), then it follows that it is not just the experience of having parents who divorce acrimoniously that may lead to damage to the immune system, but any significant childhood trauma that results chronic stress and negative emotions.

CONCLUSION :

Children whose parents divorce acrimoniously are more likely to incur damage to their immune systems (that endures well into adulthood) than those whose parents divorce amicably / civilly (all else being equal) according to the findings of this study. However, future similar studies are necessary in order to add weight of evidence to these results.

N.B This is NOT to say children whose parents divorce relatively civilly are not psychologically damaged and it is also NOT to say that such children suffer no harm to their immune systems as a result of their parents’ divorce ; it can only be inferred, in the light of this study, that if one’s parents divorce amicably this may operate as a protective psychological factor, protecting the child from the worst of the detrimental emotional effects of divorce. For more information about the effects, in general, of divorce upon children you may wish to read my previously published article entitled : POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

How Trauma Can Seriously Adversely Affect The Nervous System

how trauma can adversely affect the nervous system

Peter Levine, an expert on the effects of trauma on the body, states that as a result of severe and prolonged trauma, the functioning of our nervous systems can become seriously disrupted. More specifically, traumatized individuals can suffer from dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system.

What Is The Autonomic Nervous System?

The autonomic nervous system operates below the level of conscious awareness (i.e. it functions involuntarily) and consists of two sub-systems : the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

What Are The Sympathetic And Parasympathetic Sub-Systems?

The Sympathetic Sub-System :

This sub-system of the autonomic nervous system is ‘switched on’ when we are faced with threat/danger/emergencies in order to mobilize extra energy that the body may require for fight/flight.

The Parasympathetic Sub-System :

This sub-system of the autonomic nervous system is ‘switched on’ when we are in a state of relaxation.

 

How Does The Autonomic Nervous System Become Dysregulated And What Effect Does Such Dysregulation Have On The Individual?

Trauma can cause the autonomic nervous system to become dysregulated in two main ways :

  1. The sympathetic sub-system can become ‘stuck’ / ‘locked on’
  2. The parasympathetic sub-system can become ‘stuck’ / ‘locked on’

A traumatized individual, whose traumatic experiences remain unprocessed, may become ‘stuck’ / ‘locked into’ one of the above two extremes or may oscillate back and forth between the them ; their is a loss of homeostasis (i.e. healthy balance between the two systems). In the absence of effective therapy, such dysregulation can persist for months, or, as in my own case, for years. I briefly outline the effects of these two types of dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system below :

trauma adverse effect on nervous system

Above : Effects of the activation of each of the two sub-systems on heart rate. Other effects of the two sub-systems shown below :

 

EFFECTS OF THE SYMPATHETIC SUB-SYSTEM BEING ‘LOCKED ON’ :

 

  • increased heart rate
  • fear
  • anxiety
  • panic
  • hypervigilance
  • insomnia
  • mania
  • anger / rage / hostility
  • chronic pain
  • emotional flooding
  • digestion inhibited
  • adrenal glands secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • bronchioles are dilated

EFFECTS OF THE PARASYMPATHETIC SUB-SYSTEM BEING ‘LOCKED ON’ :

NB. The normal function of the parasympathetic sub-system is to facilitate rest and recovery after the sympathetic sub-system has been activated and the danger has passed – however, severe trauma can lead to the body ‘shutting down’ too much leading to symptoms such as those shown above.

THERAPY :

A therapy that has been specifically designed for individuals who have experienced trauma leading to dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (as described above) is called SOMATIC EXPERIENCING THERAPY.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

The Role Of Being Unloved By Parents In Cancer And Heart Disease

The Role Of Being Unloved By Parents In Cancer And Heart Disease

A study carried out at Harvard University during the 1950s was conducted in order to gain insight into the link (if any) between the quality of individuals’ relationships with their parents and their physical health.

The participants in the study were 126 undergraduates and each was given a simple questionnaire with the aim of collecting information relating to how emotionally close each of these young people felt to their mothers and fathers.

The questionnaire presented three options for describing these relationships – I show these below :

  • VERY CLOSE
  • TOLERANT
  • STRAINED AND COLD

The study was longitudinal, and the original participants were followed up THIRTY-FIVE YEARS LATER (meaning that they were now all in either their fifties or their sixties) and their MEDICAL RECORDS WERE EXAMINED.

THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY :

  • 91% of those individuals who had, thirty-five years earlier, described their relationship with their mother as either TOLERANT or STRAINED AND COLD had been diagnosed with a serious medical condition by midlife ; these conditions included HEART DISEASE, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE and ULCERS.

FURTHERMORE :

  • In the case of those individuals who had, thirty-five years earlier, described their relationship with BOTH their mother AND father as either TOLERANT or STRAINED AND COLD, this figure climbed to a staggering 100%.

ADDITIONAL FINDINGS :

  • Amongst individuals in the study who described their relationship with their mother as ‘warm and friendly’, only 45% had developed a disease by the time they reached their fifties.
  • Those who reported feeling loved by their fathers also developed lower rates of disease by the time they reached midlife than those who did not report a positive relationship with their fathers

 

Another similar, longitudinal study, carried out at John Hopkins University, found that students who reported impoverished emotional relationships with their parents were far more likely to have developed cancer by the time they had reached their forties and fifties than those individuals who had reported more warm and loving relationships with their parents,

 

CONCLUSION :

The researchers concluded that, according to their findings and based upon their (non-random) population samples, the quality of the emotional bond with parents was the single most powerful predictor of the later development of illness and disease, including cancer and heart disease (more powerful, even, than drinking, smoking, parental divorce, death of a parent and exposure to environmental toxins).

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Yoga For Complex PTSD

yoga for complex PTSD

Overcoming Trauma Through Yoga: Reclaiming Your Body

 

Studies into the effectiveness of yoga already suggest that it can help to ameliorate both physical and psychological problems including diabetes, arthritis, fibromyalgia, depression and anxiety.

There also now exists evidence (e.g. van der Kolk, 2014, see below)) that it can help to reduce symptoms of Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (Complex PTSD).

Complex PTSD Gives Rise To Both Psychological And Physical Symptoms :

We have already seen how the cumulative effects of exposure to ongoing and repetitive trauma can result in the development of Complex PTSD and that the condition adversely affects the body’s physiology leading to impaired functioning of the autonomic nervous system and associated physical problems that can manifest in various ways including :

Furthermore, such symptoms are, in individuals with Complex PTSD, if not ongoing (though they can be : my own hyperventilation and physical agitation went on for years and the former continues to be set off by what most others would consider to be trivial anxieties, whilst my resting heart rate is still, worryingly, running at over one hundred beats per minute), very easily triggered by even relatively minor stressors ; this is because the individual’s capacity to tolerate stress is dramatically compromised, especially in relation to stressors that are linked (on either a conscious or unconscious level) to memories of the original traumatic experiences.

yoga for complex PTSD

Severe Physical Symptoms Of Complex PTSD May Prevent Or Impair Talk-Based Psychotherapy :

If such physical symptoms of Complex PTSD are severe and remain unaddressed there is potential for them to prevent or impair talk-based psychotherapy. For example, in my own case my physical symptoms were so bad that I frequently either could not attend therapy sessions (as I was unable to leave my flat), or, if I did manage to attend, was unable to focus or concentrate properly.

How Can Yoga Help Those Suffering From Complex PTSD?

Yoga that incorporates physical exercises, breathing exercises and mindfulness can be a more effective treatment of the physiological symptoms of Complex PTSD that talk-based psychotherapy because of the fact that it DIRECTLY ADDRESSES SUCH SYMPTOMS THROUGH BREATHING TECHNIQUES AND BODY WORK. Indeed, recent research supports the effectiveness of yoga in this regard – for example, van der Kolk’s study (2014), which I briefly outline below :

The Study :

  • The participants in the study were adult females with Complex PTSD who had not responded to the intervention of traditional psychotherapy
  • These same females were then randomly allocated to one of two groups as shown below :

GROUP ONE : The females who were randomly allocated to GROUP ONE underwent a TEN WEEK COURSE IN TRAUMA SENSITIVE YOGA (a special form of yoga that was developed at the Boston Trauma Center in the U.S.)

GROUP TWO : The females who were randomly allocated to GROUP TWO did NOT undergo this course.

The Results Of The Study :

The main findings of the study were as follows :

At the end of the ten week period :

  • Those in the treatment group (GROUP ONE) were significantly less likely still to meet the diagnostic criteria for Complex PTSD than those in the non-treatment group (GROUP TWO).
  • Furthermore, those in the treatment group (GROUP ONE) showed a significant reduction in depression and self-harm

Longer term studies have found similar results (e.g. Rhodes, 2014).

CONCLUSION :

Yoga may be an effective complementary treatment option to be used in conjunction with talk-based psychotherapies particularly when physical symptoms of Complex PTSD are so severe that they interfere with talk-based psychotherapies, as in my own case (see above).

A major benefit of yoga for the treatment of the physical symptoms of Complex PTSD is that it addresses such problems directly.

 

If you would like to read my related article : ‘TRAUMA RELEASE EXERCISES’, please click here.

 

eBook :

Above eBook now available for instant download from Amazon – click here for further details.

 

David Hosier Bsc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE) Read More →

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Forgiveness And Its Health Benefits

benefits of forgiveness

Why Is Forgiveness Beneficial For Our Health And Prospects Of Recovery?

If we have suffered childhood trauma as a result of our parents’ abusive behavior or neglect, we may grow up feeling angry and resentful towards them. Furthermore, as a result of our childhood experiences, our own behavior in the past may have been dysfunctional and self-destructive and we may feel angry with ourselves about this.

Feeling angry towards our parents and/or ourselves, though, can act as a very major impediment to our recovery from the effects of our childhood trauma – so this is one vitally important reason why forgiving ourselves and our parents can be an extremely positive and helpful thing to do ; after all, feeling constantly bitter, angry and resentful is an exhausting and painful frame of mind to endure (in most cases simply harming ourselves rather than anybody else; this idea is pithily encapsulated by the well known aphorism that (to paraphrase) being filled with anger, vengefulness and resentment is akin to drinking poison and expecting our enemy to die. 

In short, being preoccupied with feelings of resentment keeps us trapped in the past and prevents us living in, and enjoying, the present.

Physical Benefits Of Forgiveness :

Also, the act of forgiveness, assuming it is freely chosen and authentic rather than something we have reluctantly forced ourselves to do, is most important for our physical health and I briefly explain why below :

      • being constantly angry locks our nervous systems into the ‘fight or flight’ state; this results in various physiological changes in our bodies which, in turn, makes us more susceptible to heart disease / attacks; it follows, therefore, that letting go of our anger and practicing forgiveness will make us less likely to experience such heart problems
      • chronic anger also increases our risk of diabetes
      • chronic anger increases the risk of high blood pressure

    Also, according to research carried out by The John Hopkins Hospital, practicing forgiveness can:

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Somatic Experiencing Therapy : Healing The Dysfunctional Nervous System

somatic experiencing

Dr Peter Levine’s somatic experiencing therapy is predicated upon idea that the disturbing symptoms of PTSD are substantially caused by the adverse effect our traumatic experiences have had on the way our body and nervous system works.

In essence, Levine contends that if we are suffering from PTSD it means we have become stuck’ in the fight/flight/freeze response.

In order to understand this, consider how wild animals respond to danger; let’s use the example of a zebra :

If a zebra is stalked by a tiger, it will enter the flight/fight state and run away. Whilst running away, it is in the fight/flight state, meaning that it will be highly physiologically aroused (e.g. fast heart rate) in order to provide it with the energy to (hopefully) escape.

If it is lucky enough to escape to safety, the zebra’s level of physiological arousal will quickly return to normal because the immediate danger has passed.

In other words, the zebra only remains in fight/flight mode for a short period of time to deal with immediate danger.

Below – The Physiological Effects Of Being In Fight/Flight Mode :

somatic experiencing

Getting ‘Stuck’ In Fight/Flight/Freeze Mode :

However, in sharp contrast, individuals suffering from PTSD have, like the zebra had their fight/flight response triggered by their traumatic experience but, unlike the zebra, remain stuck in this state of heightened physiological arousal even though the danger has passed; it is this, according to Levine, that causes the distressing symptoms of PTSD.

The Root Cause Of The Symptoms Of Trauma : Trapped ‘Survival Energy’ :

Levine states that, in those suffering from PTSD, the initial great stress caused by our traumatic experience, whatever this may have been (including the complex, cumulative effects of childhood trauma such as emotional abuse) leads to the production of ‘survival energy’ which is not discharged once the traumatic experience is over but remains bound up and trapped in the body.

It is this trapped survival energy that, according to Levine, is at the root of the debilitating symptoms of traumas

The Need To Discharge The Trapped ‘Survival Energy.’

Levine suggests that discharging the trapped survival energy held in our bodies will allow our heightened physiological state and the operation of our nervous systems to return to normal and thus alleviate our symptoms of trauma.

Levine’s somatic experiencing therapy is designed to help us achieve this therapeutic discharge of survival energy.

In order to find out more about somatic experiencing therapy you may find the link provided here useful.

Resource :

   Complete Stress Management Pack. Click here for further information.
David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

 

 

 

 

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Childhood Trauma May Accelerate Aging Process And Reduce Life Expectancy

 

accelerated aging and childhood trauma

Childhood trauma may accelerate the aging process : this article sheds light on the possible reasons.

Research conducted by Puterman (University of Columbia, Canada), a specialist in stress and aging, suggests that those of us who suffered significant trauma and consequential chronic feelings of stress as children may :

a) be more prone to disease and illness as adults

b) live shorter than average lives

Why Might This Be?

According to Puterman, this may be due to the adverse effects the stress of our childhoods had on our body’s cells.

More specifically, Puterman suggests that early, protracted exposure to stress may shorten our telomeres (telomeres are located on the end of our chromosomes).

Above : Telomeres under the microscope.

 

Above : Childhood trauma may prematurely age telomeres.

Why Do Shortened Telomeres Matter?

Telomeres serve to protect our chromosomes and, if shortened by early life stress, do not perform their task so effectively ; this may lead to the cells in our body aging and dying prematurely, Puterman suggests.

Puterman is careful to point out, however,  that experiencing stressful events in childhood does not necessarily cause the shortening of telomeres in any simple, direct way, but, rather, the greater the number of traumas we suffer, the greater their duration and the greater their intensity, the higher our risk is that our telomeres will incur damage.

Puterman’s research findings also suggested (based on the study of 4,600 individuals) that social and psychological stressful events that occur during childhood have a more damaging effect on telomeres than do stressors relating to the particular family’s financial situation.

Other Ways Childhood Trauma Adversely Impacts Upon Our Physical Health :

We know, too, that those who have experienced significant childhood trauma are more likely than average to :

 

All of the above, of course, may significantly undermine our physical health, and, even, ultimately, lead to terminal disease and illness.

 

TO READ MY POST ENTITLED : ‘How Childhood Trauma Can Reduce Our Life Expectancy BY 19 Years‘, CLICK HERE.

eBook :

Above eBook now available from Amazon for instant download (other titles available). Click here.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Why Is Physical Illness More Common In PTSD Sufferers?

PTSD and physical illness

If we have suffered from significant childhood trauma leading to the development of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in our adult lives this also puts us at increased risk of developing various unpleasant physical symptoms. This is because the trauma has had chemical effects in our brain (leading to our PTSD) which can have knock-on adverse effects upon our body. I provide examples of the kind of symptoms that may result below :

SYMPTOMS :

  • increased rate of heartbeat
  • stomach / digestive problems
  • rapid and shallow breathing (often referred to as hyperventilation)
  • shaking / trembling / tremors / localized muscle spasms
  • feeling faint / light-headedness
  • sweating

DISEASES AND DISORDERS :

A positive correlation exists between the incidence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a population and the incidence of certain physical diseases and disorders (shown below) in that same population. However, further research needs to be conducted in order to ascertain whether having post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases one’s risk of suffering these conditions or whether having such conditions makes one more vulnerable to developing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Some of the diseases and disorders associated with PTSD are as follows :

  • cardiovascular disease
  • increased probability of suffering from heart attacks
  • IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)
  • headaches
  • certain autoimmune disorders (eg those causing problems with the skin)
  • pregnancy complications
  • miscarriage
  • preterm contractions
  • obesity

 

Above : PTSD physically, biologically and chemically alters the brain – these changes may lead to physical symptoms, diseases and disorders in some sufferers, on top of the immense psychological pain and suffering it causes all who are unfortunate enough to have the condition.

 

Why Do Such Links Between PTSD And These Disorders Exist?

Various theories have been put forward in an attempt to explain why such links between PTSD and physical disorders such as those listed above exist.

  1. Increases in stress hormones such as cortisol over time have an adverse physical effect upon the heart and cardiovascular system.
  2. PTSD can lead to unhealthy ways of trying to cope with mental pain and suffering such as excessive drinking, excessive smoking and the ingestion of dangerous narcotics and overeating (so-called ‘comfort eating’) all of which, in turn, can lead to declining physical health.
  3. PTSD sufferers tend also to be seriously depressed and therefore lethargic – this can mean that PTSD sufferers take very little physical exercise leading to a greater likelihood of developing physical health problems.
  4. PTSD causes a change in the balance of chemicals in the brain and these changes, in turn, may cause yet further changes adversely affecting the immune system and various bodily organs.
  5. Changes in certain chemicals that negatively affect the mind also adversely affect the stomach.

 

eBook :

Above eBook now available for immediate download from Amazon. Click here.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSC; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2016 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Always Tired? Is ‘Adrenal Fatigue’ A Real Syndrome?

adrenal fatigue

 

 

We have seen from other articles that I have published on this site that significant and protracted childhood trauma can physically damage the developing brain and, in particular, the development of a brain region known as the AMYGDALA.

amygdala

One of the functions of the amygdala is to regulate our emotions, including fear and anxiety, and, as a result of this damage, it can become dysfunctional.

This dysfunction may result in the amygdala becoming ‘stuck in overdrive’ leading us to feel constantly highly anxious and fearful – in other words, locked into a perpetual state of ‘fight or flight’.

When we are in a state of ‘fight or flight’, our bodies undergo certain physical effects; these include :

– increased heart rate

– increased blood pressure

– rapid breathing

– an increase in the production of the stress hormone known as cortisol

– an increase in the stress hormone known as adrenalin

According to Adrenal Fatigue theory, when we are subjected to chronic, intense stress, such as that described above, the adrenal gland becomes dysfunctional resulting in symptoms such as those listed below:

– constant, extreme tiredness

– an impaired ability to concentrate

– difficulty in getting out of bed in the morning

However, it is important to note that, at the time of writing, there exists insufficient evidence to establish Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome as a formally recognized disorder in the world of mainstream medicine.

 

adrenal fatigue

Conclusion:

If  ‘adrenalin fatigue syndrome’ is not, in fact, a real condition, being diagnosed with it by an alternative therapist might detract from the real issue which could be, for example, depressionchronic fatigue syndrome, heart failure, diabetes, poor diet, poor quality sleep or anemia, all of which conditions may produce symptoms of extreme and chronic fatigue.

Resource:

Traumatic childhood

Downloadable MP3 or CD for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome : click here 

 

eBook:


Above eBook now available on Amazon for instant download. Click here (other titles by David Hosier also available).

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2016 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

How Emotional Suffering Is Like Physical Pain.

child trauma

At the height of my own mental turmoil, which lasted many years, my emotional distress was so intense that the only way I could carry on was to remind myself constantly that I could escape it through suicide. The major part of each day I spent obsessively going over and over in my mind how I could accomplish it successfully.

physical pain similar to emotional pain

I wanted a method with a one hundred per cent guarantee of working; however, whenever I came up with a method I thought I’d be brave enough to undertake, I always also came up with an idea of how it, just conceivably, might fail.

However remote the chance of this failure was, it would prevent me going ahead as I was terrified that I would end up not only suicidally depressed, but additionally crippled, quadriplegic, and/or brain damaged. (A previous suicide attempt I’d made, which I thought fool-proof, left me in a coma for five days and easily could have caused me to incur brain damage).

compare physical and mental pain

Furthermore, (and I am embarrassed to admit this) although I am not a religious person, in my paranoid state I was afraid that if I succeeded in killing myself I might be cast into hell and tortured for all eternity (actually, this is a common fear many deeply, clinically depressed people have : to sleep, perchance to dream, as Hamlet metaphorically and euphemistically expressed it). I would then go over and over in my mind all the different kinds of torture I might have to endure.

On one’s own, unable to sleep at 3am (cue thunder clap, lightning strike and eerily howling wind), this is a truly terrifying state of mind to be in.

When I would try to describe to doctors, therapists and psychiatrists how I felt (impossible – this is one of the worst aspects of mental illness, the sheer incommunicability of the depth and intensity of one’s suffering) I would explain, as best I could, that I felt a constant pain in my head which tortured me, and that this pain was neither wholly physical nor wholly mental; rather, it was some indefinable combination of the two.

Why is such emotional suffering so painful, even agonizing? In fact, a look at the neurology underlying emotional pain helps us to understand at least part of the answer.

 

The Underlying Neurology Of Emotional And Psychological Suffering:

Recent studies (eg Randle et al; DeWall et al) have highlighted how the brain may respond to emotional pain (such as rejection) in a similar manner to how it responds to physical pain.

Indeed, brain scans have revealed that, irrespective of whethet it’s the case that a person is experiencing emotional pain or physical pain, the same brain regions become highly activated. These two brain regions are:

1) THE SECONDARY SOMTASENSORY CORTEX

2) THE DORSAL POSTERIOR INSULA

Because the brain seems to interpret physical and emotional pain in similar ways, it is perhaps not surprising that some evidence has been found suggesting some pain killer medication (originally intended to treat only physical pain) may help to ameliorate emotional pain/mental distress, such as aspirin and Tylenol. However, this idea remains (currently) controversial due to the paucity of reliable data.

More research needs to be conducted – at the time of writing the jury remains out.

The Cycle Of Pain:

The pain cycle

Above: The cycle of pain shown above is applicable to both mental and physical pain:

 

eBook:

brain_damage_caused_by_childhood_trauma

Above eBook now available to download instantly from Amazon. Click here.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2016 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery
Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!