Category Archives: Depression And Anxiety Articles

Self-Hypnosis For Depression

 

self-hypnosis for depression

We have seen from many other articles that I have published on this site that those of us who have suffered significant childhood trauma are at increased risk of developing depression (as well as many other psychiatric conditions) in adulthood than those who had relatively happy and stable childhoods (all else being equal).

One method that can help to reduce feelings of depression, especially when used in conjunction with other therapies such as pharmacology and psychotherapy, is self-hypnosis.

One of the main prevailing theories of the cause of depression is that it arises due to imbalances in certain brain chemicals (called neurotransmitters), in particular serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine.

What Is The Function Of These Brain Chemicals?

 – Serotonin is thought to be involved with appetite, digestion, social behaviour, sexual desire, sexual function, sleep, memory and mood.

 – Norepinephrine is thought to be involved with the body’s ‘fight or flight’ response.

 – Dopamine is thought to play a very important role in internal reward-motivated behaviour (eg the pleasurable feelings generated by sex or a large gambling win).

In order to attempt to correct this chemical imbalance, and thus alleviate depressive symptoms, medications are frequently prescribed. Unfortunately, however, not everyone finds them effective.

Self-Hypnosis For Depression :

Another way to alter the brain’s chemical balance in those suffering from depression, research has shown, is by self-suggestion, as used in self-hypnosis, and by altering a person’s level of expectancy regarding their recovery (which plays a major role, of course, in the placebo effect); both of these phenomena have their foundations in the well known phenomenon of  mind-body connection.

Indeed, self-hypnosis for depression (utilizing self-suggestion) combined with psychotherapy and/or drug therapy may be a particularly effective way of alleviating depressive symptoms.

Depression can also be exacerbated by loneliness or due to poor relationships with significant others (an illustrative example of this is that, on average, married people are significantly less likely (some research suggests up to 70% less likely) to suffer from depression compared with their non-married counterparts; here, again, self-hypnosis can be of use in order to assist us to  improve our interpersonal relationships by, for example, helping to repair our disrupted unconscious processes, allowing us to be more able to give and receive love/affection, making us less withdrawn, and reducing tendencies to judge ourselves and others in an overly negative manner.

 

Self-Hypnosis Downloadable Audio MP3s:

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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Shame And Its Agonizing Effects

As we have seen from other articles I have published on this site, those who suffer severe trauma in early life may go on to experience irrational, deep-seated feelings of shame in adulthood, particularly if they have developed conditions highly likely to be linked to their adverse childhood experiences such as clinical depression or borderline personality disorder (BPD).

Feelings of shame can be excruciatingly painful; at their worst, they can cause us to completely isolate ourselves so that we avoid contact with others to the extent that we may become virtual recluses, perhaps only daring to venture out of our house or flat when absolutely necessary. Indeed, the word ‘shame‘ derives from the Indian word ‘sham‘ which means ‘to hide.’

What Is Shame?

When we feel ashamed we feel very negatively about ourselves and believe we are, to put it simply, a deeply bad person. We also tend to assume that others are judging us in a similarly disparaging manner. The sensation of shame also frequently involves feelings of inadequacy, inferiority, incompetence, self-disgust, self-hatred, anxiety, anger, bodily tension, nausea and sweating/feeling too hot.

Effects On Relationships :

Because of our own jaundiced and self-lacerating view of ourselves, we assume others will feel the same way about us (or soon will do once they discover’ what a ‘horrible and disgusting’ person we are). We therefore avoid trying to form close relationships, believing such efforts to be futile given that we will ‘inevitably be rejected’ once the ‘real’ us is ‘discovered.’

Other Possible Effects Of Shame :

We may also try to psychologically defend ourselves from deep rooted feelings of shame. For example :

– we may become preoccupied with managing a superficial image of ourselves when interacting with others which we desperately hope will keep ‘our true badness‘ concealed; this can lead to the creation of a ‘false self’ which precludes any chance of authentic or meaningful interaction with others (in other words, we ‘become afraid to be who we are’).

   – perfectionism / ‘workaholism’ (in a desperate attempt to compensate for the profound inner feelings of inadequacy and inferiority that may accompany a pervasive sense of shame).’Workaholism’ and perfectionism are both extremely precarious ways of maintaining some semblance of self-respect and self-esteem as we tend to continually set ourselves targets which, inevitably, we sometimes fail to achieve. We are then highly vulnerable to suffering a catastrophic collapse in our sense of self-worth as it has not been built upon strong enough, nor sustainable, foundations.

Image result for shame

Differentiating Between Three Types Of Shame :

We can differentiate between three specific types of shame. These are :

1) INTERNAL SHAME

2) EXTERNAL SHAME

3) REFLECTED SHAME

I define these three types of shame below :

Internal Shame : this is a sense of shame we feel about ourselves

External Shame : this is when we perceive that others have a very low view of us which makes us feel ashamed

Reflected Shame : this is when we feel shame vicariously due to how someone else connected yo us has behaved, such as a family member or a member of a group with which we identify.

Often, a sense of internal shame and external shame co-exist within the same person. However, in the case of shame related to childhood trauma, we may (irrationally) feel a strong sense of internal shame even though we can accept that others are not negatively evaluating us as a result of what happened to us (i.e. there is an absence of external shame).

A POSSIBLE SOLUTION : COMPASSION FOCUSED THERAPY :

There is evidence to suggest that COMPASSION FOCUSED THERAPY may be of particular benefit to those suffering from distress connected to the experience of shame.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

 

 

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Healthy Guilt Versus Unhealthy Guilt

healthy and unhealthy guilt

Healthy And Unhealthy Guilt :

Like all emotions, feelings of guilt evolved in humans for their ‘survival value.’ However, feeling guilty is (at minimum) an unpleasant sensation so what ‘survival value’, or, to put it simply, benefits, does the emotion bring?

The answer to this question is that healthy feelings of guilt motivate us to preserve our personal standards/morality/ethics which, in turn, makes our relationships with others more likely to thrive (e.g. our conscience makes it less likely we will treat others badly and risk losing them as allies/friends).

However, feelings of guilt can also be unhealthy and affect our lives adversely. Those of us who have suffered significant childhood trauma are particularly likely to experience unhealthy guilt which, unfortunately, often persists into adulthood. I provide some examples of how feelings of unhealthy guilt may develop below :

– a child whose parents divorce may irrational blame him/herself for this divorce

– a child whose parent dies may irrationally feel guilty moving on with his/her own life

– a child whose mother suffers from depression may irrationally feel guilty enjoying him/herself

– a child who is perpetually criticized and treated negatively by his/her parents may develop deep seated and pervasive feelings of irrational guilt that are likely to persist into adulthood in the absence of effective therapy.

WHAT ARE THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SUCH IRRATIONAL, UNHEALTHY GUILT?

  1. DISTRESS – this can range from the uncomfortable at one end of the spectrum to excruciating and paralyzing at the other.
  2. AN INABILITY PROPERLY TO FOCUS UPON ONE’S OWN NEEDS
  3. SELF-HATRED, EXTREMELY LOW SELF-ESTEEM, LACK OF CONFIDENCE
  4. FEELINGS OF SHAME – if we are made to feel guilty to a significant degree, and often enough, during childhood we can develop a constant, profound feeling of shame. [The difference between feelings of ‘guilt’ and feelings of ‘shame is that when we feel guilty we feel we’ve DONE something bad, but, when we feel shame, we feel that we ARE bad (i.e. intrinsically bad)]. Click here to read my article about How A Child’s View Of Their Own ‘Badness’ Is Perpetuated.
  5. POOR CONCENTRATION AND FOCUS (due to intrusive, guilt-ridden thoughts and ruminations)
  6. POOR PERFORMANCE AT SCHOOL OR WORK (linked to number 5, above)
  7. LOSS OF CAPACITY TO ENJOY LIFE / WON’T PERMIT ONESELF TO DO ENJOYABLE THINGS (due to feelings/beliefs along the lines of ‘I don’t deserve to be happy’ or ‘it would be morally wrong to enjoy myself’). Such feelings/beliefs can also be related to conscious or unconscious desires to punish oneself.

It can be seen, then, that, whilst ‘healthy guilt’ has benefits, ‘unhealthy guilt’ serves no beneficial purpose and is solely destructive.

THE LINK BETWEEN UNHEALTHY GUILT AND PSYCHIATRIC CONDITIONS :

Unhealthy guilt can be a symptom of certain psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such guilt can be unremitting and overwhelming and, as such, should be treated by a relevantly qualified profession.

 Self-hypnosis MP3 – help alleviate feelings of guilt and shame. Click here.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Copyright 2016 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Hypnosis For Simple Phobias

hypnosis for simple phobias

Research shows that those who suffered significant trauma as children are at elevated risk of developing anxiety conditions as adults; simple phobias are one (amongst many) expression of such anxiety.

A simple phobia is an irrational fear of a single object, activity or situation (unlike complex phobias that may have multiple triggers, such as social phobia). The individual who has the phobia is fully aware that his/her phobia is irrational, but, despite this awareness, at the point of starting therapy has been unable to overcome it.

Research:

Whilst further research needs to be conducted on the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for individuals suffering from simple phobias, several studies have shown it to be helpful (e.g. McGuinness, 1984; Rustvold, 1994).

How Is Hypnotherapy Used To Treat Simple Phobias?

One of the most effective ways of treating a simple phobia with hypnosis is to employ the method of desensitization and I explain the process below, using the example of arachnophobia (a phobia of spiders).

1) A deep sense of relaxation and safety is hypnotically induced in the patient.

2) The patient is instructed to visualize a small spider from a distance

3) The patient is instructed to visualize the same spider but from a closer distance

4) The patient is instructed to visualize an average sized spider from a distance

…etc…etc

The final stage might consist of the hypnotherapist instructing the patient to visualize picking a large spider up with a people piece of tissue paper and dropping it out of the window.

The idea is that at each subsequent stage the patient is gradually exposed, in imagination only, to increasingly, potentially anxiety-provoking ‘encounters’ with the spider. It is unnecessary for the patient to come into contact with a real spider.

Throughout the process, the client receives suggestions that s/he will feel relaxed, safe and in control.

When successful, this process has the effect of gradually and systematically ‘desensitizing’ the patient to spiders (ie causing the patient to stop responding fearfully to them in a way that is TRANSFERABLE TO REAL SITUATIONS).

Phobias, Logic And Reasoning:

Many individuals who suffer from phobias become frustrated that they are unable to overcome their phobia through logical and reasoned thinking given that they know their fear to be irrational; repeatedly telling themselves the object of their fears presents no threat or danger to them tends not to work which means cognitive based therapies may be unsuccessful.

When individuals try to cure their phobia by logic and reason they are using the brain’s left hemisphere.

However, the benefit of using hypnosis to treat phobias is that it taps into the brain’s right hemisphere and this side of the brain is involved in emotional processing, feelings, instincts and visualization, all of which hypnosis harnesses to help the individual overcome his/her phobia.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Effects Of Homophobia In Schools

homophobia in schools

What Are The Effects Of Homophobia In Schools?

When I was about fifteen, I drew a heart in a notebook I kept on my desk in my bedroom and, within the heart, wrote ‘ I love…’ followed by the name of a boy in my year at school (complete with drawing of arrow piercing the heart, and, for good measure, a few dollops of blood seeping from the wound – yes, I know!)

Of course, I always kept the notebook shut and in a drawer, to keep it safe from prying eyes (as I naively believed at the time), concealed by other books, innocuous books placed on top of it.

Some weeks later, I arrived home from school (still never having even spoken to the boy – I was mysteriously struck dumb whenever in his presence), and, as was my habit, beat a hasty retreat to the solitude of my bedroom (to avoid having to interact with my stepmother who despised me).

Imagine my horror when I saw on my bed the notebook which I always so carefully kept concealed! And worse, oh, so much worse, open at the ‘incriminating’ page.

This was, of course, my stepmother’s handiwork (nobody else had been in the house all day) calculated to cause me maximum shame, humiliation and embarrassment. Well, It worked (and then some).

To make the matter even more sinister and insidious, she never mentioned it – nor, of course, did I. (Preferring, instead, to skulk around the house looking sheepish).

Her communication of the hatred she felt for me, epitomized by this both shameful, and shaming, incident, continued in its usual vein – tacitly, implicitly and by insinuation – making it impossible for me, as a callow young teenager, directly to identify or effectively defend myself against.

Indeed, if I attempted to, I would be accused of paranoia (this is a well known psychological technique known as gaslighting which undermines the victim’s sense of reality and can, when chronically sustained, eventually induce psychosis).

As teenagers we long to be accepted as part of the group, and, whilst things are much better than they were three decades ago when I myself was a teenager, teenagers today still, sadly, experience homophobia.

Needless to say, this discrimination, leading to exclusion from the group, can be very traumatic, particularly as being singled out due to something as sensitive as one’s sexuality can be especially devastating (teenagers are, after all , at a stage in their lives when they are especially self-conscious and in need of acceptance).

Homophobic Bullying Leading To Mental Suffering :

A recent study carried out by Benigui found that young people who experience homophobia, including discrimination, prejudice, bullying and verbal attacks, have elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol flowing in their blood streams and are at increased risk of suffering from anxiety and depression.

And, most concerningly, they are fourteen times more likely to commit suicide than the average person their age.

homophobia in schools

Internalization Of Anti-Gay Attitudes :

It is likely that one of the main reasons for these findings is the fact that these victimized young people internalize the negative views others express towards them. This can result in the young person becoming what is technically known as an ego-dystonic homosexual (i.e. his/her homosexuality causes him/her mental distress).

Resilience:

However, the study also found that the young person could develop resilience against the negative effects of homophobia if :

– s/he had good emotional support from friends

– good emotional support from family

Conclusion:

The main conclusion drawn from the study was that much work still needs to be done to increase acceptance of, and respect for, diversity in the home, at schools and in the community in general, notwithstanding the significant advances made over recent decades.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

 

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Koro (Or The Incredible Shrinking Manhood).

It has taken me a very long time indeed to pluck up the courage to write this post, such was my embarrassment; you may understand why when you read what follows below.

Male readers will be familiar with the fact that when it is very cold, or when one is extremely anxious or fearful, the penis can partially retract.

Whilst I know this now, I didn’t know it when I was ten years old.

One day, whilst staying at my father’s home for the weekend (my parents were divorced) when I was around this age, I noticed, whilst in the bathroom, that my penis seemed smaller – whether due to the bathroom being cold, or high anxiety, I don’t recall.

Immediately, I went into a terrible panic which had the effect of causing my penis to retract further into my body, thus setting up a vicious cycle.

As some readers will be aware from other posts that I have published on this site, I had already developed clear psychological problems by this age and became hysterical with fear due to the ‘fact’, as I perceived it at the time, that my penis was about to permanently disappear.

Koro_fear of penis disappearing

Terror stricken, and crying uncontrollably, I begged my father to drive me to the doctor’s. At first he refused, but, when it became abundantly clear that my hysterical condition was intensifying rather than abating, he reluctantly relented.

During the ten minute drive there, I remember, sitting in the back seat, I kept the flies of my jeans open, allowing me monitor the situation, fully expecting my penis to disappear altogether; my older brother was in the front seat, mocking me and sneering at me, absolutely true to form.

When we finally arrived at the surgery, we found that it was closed.

At this point, my memory of the incident shuts down. However, I do know I never did get to see a doctor about the incident, nor did my father ever arrange counselling for me as a result (typically) perhaps due to the fact that this might have obliged him to admit to any such counsellor that he had left me living with a highly disturbed, unbalanced and psychologically abusive mother.

As an adult, I was surprised to learn that this fear of the penis disappearing is a recognised psychological condition (referred to as Koro) related to extreme anxiety, which, for those who are interested, can be read about by clicking here

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Behavioural Activation Can Effectively Alleviate Depression.

childhood_trauma

We know that those of us who suffered severe childhood trauma are at an elevated risk of developing clinical depression as adults. Indeed, my own depression necessitated hospital admissions and electro-convulsive shock therapy as I’ve written about elsewhere on this site.

One of the hallmarks of serious, clinical depression is reduced ability to perform everyday tasks and activities. Again, in my own case, I was often confined to my bed for much of the day, stopped washing, rarely shaved and stopped brushing my teeth.

I know, therefore, that when very ill with depression, even basic tasks can feel impossible to undertake – indeed, even contemplating having to carry them out can, when one is so ill, create severe anxiety and distress. For those who have not experienced clinical depression, this is almost impossible to imagine or comprehend; such lack of empathy leaves one feeling devastatingly alone and terrifyingly emotionally imprisoned, compounding the problem.

Sadly, this loss of ability to carry out everyday tasks and activities tends to perpetuate and even intensify one’s depressive state, thus creating a vicious cycle.

behavioural_activation

Above : Avoidant behaviour can set off a vicious circle, whilst behavioural reactivation can set off a virtuous circle.

 

Behavioural Activation :

The psychologist Lewisohn has carried out research showing how, by reactivating the behaviours we used to carry out before severe depressive illness struck, we can alleviate our depressive symptoms, or, indeed, rid ourselves of the condition entirely.

Lewisohn suggests changing our behaviours may be more effective in treating depression even than changing our thinking style (as occurs in cognitive therapy). In other words, he postulates that:

Behaviour Therapy (changing the way we behave)

may be a more effective way of treating depression than:

Cognitive Therapy (changing the way we think)

 

In order to test this hypothesis, Lewisohn carried out the following research study:

– 200 hundred hospital outpatients suffering from clinical depression were recruited into the study.

– these 200 individuals were the randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups

– these four treatment groups were as follows :

1) individuals were treated with anti-depressants

2) individuals were treated with a placebo

3) individuals were treated with cognitive therapy (to change their thinking styles)

4) individuals were treated with behavioural therapy (to change how they behaved each day)

Results of above research study :

It was found that those in the behaviour therapy group, on average :

– gained more benefit than those in the cognitive therapy group and placebo group

– gained a benefit equal to the benefit those treated with antidepressants derived

Other studies have produced similar results.

In relation to this study, Lewiston devised a therapy known as ‘behaviour activation.’

What Is Behaviour Activation Therapy?

In basic terms, this therapy involves the depressed person :

a) listing how his/her illness has changed his/her behaviour. For example :

– stopped socializing

– stopped exercising

– spend far more time in bed

– stopped doing housework

– reduced self-catering

b) Then, in relation to list, set goals s/he would ideally achieve. For example :

– socialize as much as before the illness struck

– go to gym for an hour, every other day

– limit self to eight hours a day in bed

– keep house reasonably clean

– care for self in same way as prior to becoming ill

Once these goals have been identified, it is necessary to undertake behaviours that help one achieve them.

Now, clearly, achieving all these goals cannot happen immediately!

Therefore, it is usually necessary to take small steps. For example, if trying to attain the goal of going to the gym, for an hour, every other day, one may start off by going to the gym for twenty minutes once per week, then very gradually increase this rate.

The importance of adjusting our behaviour positively and increasing our activity levels to help improve our mood seems hard to overstate. Even by starting with tiny steps, a powerfully therapeutic virtuous cycle may be set in motion.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Four Types Of Stress Exacerbated By Childhood Trauma

types of stress

We have already seen that those of us who have suffered severe and chronic childhood trauma are at increased risk, compared to those who experienced a relatively happy and stable childhood (all else being equal), of experiencing extreme difficulty dealing with stress in our adult lives ; it is theorized that this is often, in no small part, due to damage to our brain’s development in early life, in particular to brain regions called the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

Indeed, research shows a clear link between early life trauma and the later development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) ; one of this condition’s hallmark symptoms is the inability to adequately control one’s emotions, in particular those emotions induced by stress such as anxiety and anger.

So which areas of our lives are likely to be adversely affected if we have developed a particular sensitivity to stress?

Albrecht, an expert and pioneer in the development of stress management techniques identified four key types of stress. These are:

1) Time Related stress

2) Anticipatory Stress

3) Situational stress

4) Encounter stress

Let’s look at each of these in turn:

Time Related Stress

If we feel this type of stress, we are likely to worry about all the things we need to do and how little time we have to do them in, especially if we have deadlines to meet. We will tend to rush things and feel a constant, oppressive sense of pressure, leading to a perpetual state of anxiety, tension and unease.

We may, too, frequently find ourselves obsessively ruminating, at night in bed, about what we need to do the next day, leading, perhaps, to insomnia.

Anticipatory Stress

This type of stress may :

a) be linked to a specific event or activity we have to undertake in the future, such as a job interview, public speaking engagement or examination.

b) be ill-defined, vague and generalized and, when severe, may take the form of a pervasive sense of dread about the future and a constant and abiding feeling of impending doom or disaster.

This negative view of the future is one of the negative cognitive triad of clinical depression, the other two being a negative view of the self and a negative view of other people.

Situational Stress

This type of stress may occur when:

– we find ourselves in a threatening situation over which we are unable to exert control

– we feel unaccepted (e.g. by work colleagues)

– we suffer a sudden drop in social status, such as being fired from a good job and becoming unemployed

– we find ourselves involved in interpersonal conflict (e.g. with boss or family member).

Encounter Stress:

This kind of stress can occur if we have to mix socially with others who intimidate us or who make us feel awkward and self-conscious or whom we simply dislike.

Also, interacting with those who are unpredictable can give rise to this category of stress.

Those who work in jobs which involve interacting with others who are emotionally distressed (e.g. doctors or police officers) are also susceptible to this kind of stress.

Important: If we have suffered childhood trauma that has led us to develop conditions such as BPD, it is imperative that we reduce the stress we experience to manageable levels in as many areas of our lives as possible if we are to give our brains a chance of recovery.

 

Resources:

Time management hypnosis  Time Management – advanced self-hypnosis download. Click here for more details.

 

Social anxiety hypnosis  Ten Steps To Overcome Social Anxiety – advanced self-hypnosis download. Click here for more details.

 

Overcome anticipatory anxiety. Overcome Anticipatory Stress – advanced self-hypnosis. Click here for more details.

 

pack-beat-fear-anxiety. Overcome Anxiety – advanced hypnosis pack. Click here for more details.

EBook:

 

brain damage caused by childhood trauma

Above eBook  (instant download) now available on Amazon. Click image for more details.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Copyright 2016 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Suicide : Who’s Particularly At Risk?

effects_of_childhood_trauma

We have already seen that those who have suffered severe and chronic childhood trauma are at an increased risk of ending their lives by suicide than the average. Indeed, an astonishing ten per cent of those suffering from borderline personality disorder, or BPD (a severe mental illness linked to childhood trauma) die by their own hand.

I myself made a suicide attempt, at the peak (or should that be trough?) of my illness which left me in a coma in intensive care for five days.

So, apart from those suffering from BPD, which other groups of individuals are at a heightened risk of commiting suicide?

At greatest risk, as one would imagine, are individuals who are mentally ill – nine out to ten people who die by suicide are suffering from a diagnosable mental illness.

Of the mentally ill, those suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are especially at risk (like those suffering from BPD, one in ten with either of these mental health conditions eventually commits suicide).

suicide_risk_factors

Hopelessness:

Of course, whilst about ten per cent of those suffering severe mental illnesses such as BPD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia end their lives by suicide, we need not be mathematical geniuses to deduce from this that 90℅ do not. So what tips people in these groups over the edge?

Research suggests that the main predictor of an individual with severe mental illness commiting suicide is if they also experience a profound sense of hopelessness. Like me, when I made the suicide attempt I referred to above, they feel that their intolerable mental pain will never end, that everyday will be a day of intense psychological suffering and turmoil, and that there is absolutely no way out whatsoever.

An aspect of the tragedy is, of course, that a person’s state of mind can make the individual believe 100℅ that things can never get better when, objectively, this is not the case. There are many who can vouch for this, happily, from their own former bitter experiences.

Rejection:

Feeling rejected by family, friends and society in general is another important predictor of suicide.

Impulsivity:

Whilst some suicide attempts are methodically planned (as my own was), others are made on impulse. It follows, of course, that those who have an impulsive type personality (impulsivity is often a feature of BPD) are also at higher risk.

Being Male:

About twice as many men die by suicide than women.

However, unsuccessful suicide attempts are approximately twice as likely to be made by females than by males.

The Paradox Of Getting ‘Better’:

Those suffering from severe depression, at their illest, may be so lacking in motivation, and so close to being in a catatonic state, that they wish to die but cannot muster the mental energy required to end their lives (they may, too, in such a state of illness, lack the requisite planning and decision making abilities necessary). Paradoxically, it is sometimes only when such depressive symptoms start to lift slightly that they find themselves able to make a suicide attempt.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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Early Life Trauma Can Reprogram Our DNA

effects_of_childhood_trauma

Research has now clearly demonstrated that our genes and, therefore, their effects on our personality and behaviour, can be influenced according to the environment in which we grow up. In fact, our experiences in early life can interact with specific genes and determine whether or not they become active (i.e. whether they GET SWITCHED ON or SWITCHED OFF).

If we are unfortunate enough to suffer severe trauma and chronic stress throughout our early lives then the way in which our genes express themselves (i.e. the way in which they affect our personality and behaviour) can be changed very much for the worse.

What’s more, these adverse genetic changes may then be passed on to the next generation, if we choose to have children of our own.

The evidence for the above comes from two main sources :

longitudinal studies involving humans (i.e. monitoring families over generations)

animal studies

Rat_experiments

One major animal study was conducted by Saavedra-Rodriguez et al. The study involved normal male rats which were exposed to chronic stress.

Later, these (now highly stressed) rats were mated with normal female rats.

It was found that the resultant off-spring themselves exhibited abnormally stressed and anxious behaviour. Furthermore, their off-spring displayed abnormally stressed and anxious behaviour.

Conclusion:

It follows from the above that if we have an anxious personality type it is possible that this is a result of our father himself  having had a chronically stressful childhood that adversely affected his genetic make-up which he then passed on to us.

Also, if we, too, choose to have children, there is a risk that we might pass on these adversely affected, stress-inducing genes to our own off-spring.

And it logically follows from this that it is not inconceivable that, if we ourselves have an anxious personality type, this may be a result of our grandfather having had a stressful and traumatic childhood!

Resources:

Link:

General advice on dealing with anxiety. Click here.

 

Self-hypnosis MP3/CD:

Reduce Generalized Anxiety. Click here.

 

eBook:

depression and anxiety

Above eBook now available from Amazon for instant download. Click here.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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