Category Archives: Coping Strategies And Tips

Trauma Release Exercises

trauma release exercise

THE MIND-BODY CONNECTION :

We have seen how the experience of significant and protracted childhood trauma increases our risk of developing both serious psychological and physical problems as adults – e.g. see the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study.

Therefore, therapies for those who, as adults, are suffering the effects of childhood trauma – in the most serious cases in the form of  cPTSD (complex posttraumatic stress disorder) – include not only treatments for the mind, but also ones for the body. (And, because the mind and body are interconnnected, treatments for the body will also, to varying degrees) benefit the mind.

THE FIGHT/FLIGHT/FREEZE STATE :

If we have grown up in an environment in which we were frequently made to feel afraid or threatened (physically, psychologically or both) it is possible the early physical development of our brain has been disrupted in such a way that now, as adults, we find ourselves perpetually, tense, anxious and hypervigilant, or, in other words, continuously in the fight/flight/freeze state.

One result of this is that it can cause us to store up a vast amount of physical and muscular tension.

EXCESSIVE AND CHRONIC TENSION IN THE PSOAS (‘Fight or Flight’) MUSCLE :

A main location in the body where muscular tension accumulates is called the PSOAS muscle (sometimes also referred to as the ‘fight or flightmuscle ; it connects the lumber spine to the legs.

It is sometimes called the fight/flight muscle because when we feel threatened, anxious or fearful, or in response to significant loss, it becomes energized in preparation to assist us with the actions of running away or fighting.

And, if, during childhood, we have frequently been in the fight/flight state this muscle may have become perpetually tensed up to the extent we have habituated to this feeling of tension to such a degree that we no longer register it as abnormal; notwithstanding this, it is an indication that we are still being adversely affected by painful emotions linked to our traumatic childhood (if only on an unconscious level).

TRAUMA RELEASE EXERCISES  (TRE) :

Bercelli, PhD, devised six trauma release exercises designed to alleviate this stored muscular tension. The idea is that the tension is released by a ‘muscular shaking process’ known as ‘neurogenic tremors’ and its purpose is rid us of our deep-seated, chronic, early life trauma-related bodily tension.

 

RESOURCE : You can learn much more about TRE by visiting Dr Bercelli’s website – click here.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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How To Stop Taking Things Personally

stop taking things

Taking Things Personally And Low Self-Esteem :

If we suffered significant childhood trauma, we are at greater risk as adults of suffering from psychological difficulties, including low self-esteem. And, if we have low self-esteem, we are particularly vulnerable to being hurt by others who criticize us and negatively evaluate us ; to put it in colloquial terms, we may be ‘thin-skinned’ and prone to ‘taking things personally’. (To read my article on the link between childhood trauma and low self-esteem in adulthood, click here.)

So what can we do to stop taking things personally? Below you’ll find several suggestions :

Methods We Can Use To Help Us To Stop Taking Things Personally :

  • understand that, often, those who criticize and negatively evaluate others do so because of their own problems – they may be inadequate, unhappy, frustrated, angry etc and displace (take out) these feelings on you or project their own shortcomings onto you (displacement and projection are defense mechanisms – click here to read my article relating to these).
  • if a person criticizes you and you feel s/he might have a point, try not to be defensive, but, instead, see if it’s possible to learn from what’s been said and then, if necessary, make changes rather than waste energy feeling bad
  • related to the above is the fact we are complex and, often, contradictory beings who make mistakes and that the mistakes that we make are just one aspect of us that does not define who we are
  • remember that even the most popular people will always be criticized and disapproved of by some – nobody  garners universal admiration, respect and approval
  • remember that not everyone has to approve of you all the time for you to live a contented life ; self-esteem is based upon what one thinks of oneself, irrespective of what others think. Allowing others to control how one feels about oneself is to give away power to them that need not be relinquished
  • real progress in society is very frequently made by those who are prepared to go against the grain irrespective of making themselves unpopular ; this is a virtue, not a fault and demonstrates strength of mind, character and possession of the courage of one’s convictions
  • ask yourself if you may have misinterpreted the situation. For example, if someone seems uninterested in what you’re saying, it may be that they’re preoccupied with their own concerns and not a sign you are boring them. Or if someone you know passes you in the street and seems to ‘blank’ you, could it be they simply didn’t see you?
  • realise it won’t benefit you (quite the opposite, in fact) if you ruminate on the perceived insult/slight/criticism etc. -to read my article on controlling rumination, click here
  • realize that whilst you cannot control what others think, you CAN control how you react to what they think
  • if you have done something wrong remember that, even if you have not been able to stop thinking about it, this does not mean others are thinking a lot about it too – they have myriad other things to worry about and what you do is unlikely to be central to their concerns and thought processes
  • develop self-confidence

 

Related Post :

HIGHLY SENSITIVE PEOPLE (HSPs)

RESOURCE :

DON’T TAKE IT PERSONALLY HYPNOSIS DOWNLOADS

CLICK HERE FOR DETAILS

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

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What Is Happiness?

what is happiness?

What Exactly Is Happiness?

Is it possible to recover from complex posttraumatic stress disorder or borderline personality disorder (both of which those who have suffered severe and protracted childhood trauma are at risk of developing in adulthood) and finally be happy? The answer is yes; people who have suffered these disorders can and do recover to the extent that they describe themselves as happy (even if, whilst ill, they considered ever becoming happy an absolute impossibility). But what exactly is happiness?

Factors Found To Correlate Positively With Reported Levels Of Happiness:

The psychologist David Myers found that the following correlated with happiness:

– peace of mind

self-esteem

– good self-care (e.g. healthy diet, sufficient sleep, exercise)

– meaningful / satisfying / enjoyable activities

– satisfying social interaction

– good coping skills

– good problem solving ability

– initiative

– meaningful and achievable goals (as opposed to goals which overstretch one, which are more likely to be set by those with low self-esteem in the belief that extraordinary achievement will make them feel better about themselves)

– absence of time pressure / control over how one spends one’s time

– good planning ability (both long-term and short-term)

– NOT feeling the need to achieve great success for its own sake (although great success may come about as a by product of doing something which the person finds truly meaningful, rewarding and satisfying)

– ability to live in the present (rather than constantly dwelling on the past / worrying about the future)

– NOT clinging on to feelings of blame and bitterness

The Happiness Course :

Another psychologist interested in this field of study, Michael Fordyce, theorized that if we start to do the sort of things happy people do we can reduce our levels of depression, anxiety and stress and, hopefully, become happy ourselves. In other words, we need to start acting as if we’re happy, even (or especially) when we’re not.

He conducted research into this and the findings of that research supported his theory. As part of this research, he devised what he termed the happiness course which helped individuals who undertook it develop key skills intended to increase their levels of happiness, including :

– socializing more

– planning achievable and meaningful goals

– developing optimism

– learning to live in the present

– developing expressiveness

– developing spontaneity

The PERMA Model Of Happiness:

Martin Seligman, a leading expert in the field of positive psychology developed the PERMA model which he proposed contained the five major constituents that lead to happiness; these are :

POSITIVE EMOTION (optimism about past, present and future)

ENGAGEMENT – having activities to do in which one can fully absorb oneself

RELATIONSHIPS – having supportive, rewarding relationships

MEANING – having a meaningful purpose in life

ACCOMPLISHMENT – achieving goals

To find out much more about this model, visit Matin Seligman’s Positive Psychology site.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

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PTSD Nightmares : Typical Content And Symbols

PTSD nightmares

A major symptom of CPTSD / PTSD is nightmares. I myself have suffered from these and they have led to frequent waking during the night, sheets and pillow cases damp with sweat, thrashing around in my sleep to the extent that I have, on several occasions, knocked the lamp (and several other items, such as piles of books, the alarm clock, cups of cold, unfinished tea etc) off my bedside table with arms wildly flailing about like those of a crazed and demented windmill and, even, falling out of bed a few times. I have also woken myself up shouting and, even, screaming, more than once.

A particular torment of nightmares is, of course, that after a day spent in mental anguish in a state of wakefulness, they prevent one from escaping this mental pain even in sleep so there is no respite from one’s suffering. Indeed, when one has intense and terrible nightmares, one fears going to sleep ; for us, it is not a time of mental recuperation, but of continued psychological torture. This can be so devastating to the morale that one may fear one will go permanently and irrevocably insane.

According to the Harvard psychologist, Dr D Barrett, an expert on dreaming and dream analysis, PTSD nightmares tend to contain the following types of themes / symbols :

The Themes And Symbols Of PTSD Nightmares

– dying

– monsters

– being chased

– being in danger

– being punished

– being isolated

– revenge

– being powerless

– being trapped

– guilt

– shame

– violence

– anger

– filth

– garbage

– physical injury

Nightmares, Suppression, Repression And Dissociation :

If we have extremely painful memories relating to our traumatic childhood then we may, as a means of psychological self-protection, cut off from them mentally.

In order to achieve this we may suppress the memories (i.e. try to put them to ‘the back of our minds’). This takes conscious effort and can be counterproductive – see The Rebound Effect below).

Alternatively, we may repress the memories ; this is an automatic / unconscious process that stores the memories away so deeply in the mind that they become inaccessible to conscious awareness. Mentallly cutting ourselves off from painful memories in such a manner is known as dissociation.

Processing Of Traumatic Memories

However, because these memories are dissociated, they remain unprocessed by the brain and a leading theory as to why dreams/nightmares occur is that they represent the brain’s attempt to process the dissociated memories.

Barrett’s  research has led her to the view that, immediately following traumatic events, a person’s nightmares about them tend to quite closely reflect what actually occurred. However, as the traumatic events that triggered the nightmares recede further and further into the past, the PTSD nightmares relating to them become increasingly symbolic.

What Can We Do To Alleviate Nightmares?

If our nightmares do not result in effective processing of our traumatic memories they can become ‘stuck’ ; this can lead to recurring nightmares that tend to centre upon the same themes.

To alleviate such nightmares, it is necessary to attempt to process the traumatic memories in our waking lives (assuming they have been suppressed rather than repressed – see above).

We can attempt to process the material contained within our nightmares in the following ways :

– by keeping a written record of the nightmares (e.g. by recording our recollections of them or writing these down using a pen and pencil kept by the bed etc)

– by describing our nightmares to another person (who is emotionally supportive, such as a therapist) and trying to work out what their themes and images may represent.

–  going through the nightmare in our minds when awake but changing its ending to a positive one – then mentally replaying/rehearsing this new, positive ending. It is then helpful to write out what happens in the nightmare, including writing out the new, positive ending. Alternatively, we could draw a series of pictures representing the nightmare, but, again, incorporating the new, positive ending.

– by imagining, when awake, carrying out a simple action in our dream, such as taking a single step, and saying to ourselves : ‘You are completely safe, this is just a dream’. If we then mentally rehearse this before we go to sleep we may find this action, carried out in our dream, will cue the comforting and reassuring thought (the action that is to act as the cue can be anything simple that is likely to recur in the nightmare).

Nightmares And The Rebound Effect

In relation to some of what has been said above, it is useful to look at a psychological phenomenon known as the rebound effect :

If we try very hard not to think about something, this, paradoxically, frequently increases the probability that we will think about it. The classic example that is given to first year psychology undergraduates is the instruction NOT to think about a pink elephant for the next minute. Of course, this instruction is impossible to carry out  (try it if you don’t believe me!).

This is known as the rebound effect and research suggests the phenomenon may apply to nightmares, too. One possible technique to reduce the probability of having a nightmare is, therefore, to actually think about whatever it is the nightmare represents (if this has been inferred from reflection / dream analysis) for a few minutes before going to sleep as trying not do so, because of the rebound effect, may actually increase the chances that the nightmare will occur, however counterintuitive this may sound.

RESOURCE :

Stop Recurring Nightmares / Dreams | Hypnosis Downloads. Click here for more information.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Forgiveness And Its Health Benefits

 

Why Is Forgiveness Beneficial For Our Health And Prospects Of Recovery?

If we have suffered childhood trauma as a result of our parents’ abusive behavior or neglect, we may grow up feeling angry and resentful towards them. Furthermore, as a result of our childhood experiences, our own behavior in the past may have been dysfunctional and self-destructive and we may feel angry with ourselves about this.

Feeling angry towards our parents and/or ourselves, though, can act as a very major impediment to our recovery from the effects of our childhood trauma – so this is one vitally important reason why forgiving ourselves and our parents can be an extremely positive and helpful thing to do ; after all, feeling constantly bitter, angry and resentful is an exhausting and painful frame of mind to endure (in most cases simply harming ourselves rather than anybody else; this idea is pithily encapsulated by the well known aphorism that (to paraphrase) being filled with anger, vengefulness and resentment is akin to drinking poison and expecting our enemy to die. 

In short, being preoccupied with feelings of resentment keeps us trapped in the past and prevents us living in, and enjoying, the present.

Physical Benefits Of Forgiveness :

Also, the act of forgiveness, assuming it is freely chosen and authentic rather than something we have reluctantly forced ourselves to do, is most important for our physical health and I briefly explain why below :

  • being constantly angry locks our nervous systems into the ‘fight or flight’ state; this results in various physiological changes in our bodies which, in turn, makes us more susceptible to heart disease / attacks; it follows, therefore, that letting go of our anger and practicing forgiveness will make us less likely to experience such heart problems
  • chronic anger also increases our risk of diabetes
  • chronic anger increases the risk of high blood pressure

Also, according to research carried out by The John Hopkins Hospital, practicing forgiveness can:

  • help to alleviate feelings of depression and anxiety
  • improve sleep
  • lower levels of cholesterol

Compassion :

Forgiving ourselves and others are acts of compassion and research shows that developing compassion can help us to overcome the adverse effects of childhood trauma; in relation to this, you may wish to read my article on compassion focussed therapy.

Resources :

LEARN TO FORGIVE | HYPNOSIS DOWNLOADS

FORGIVE YOURSELF | HYPNOSIS DOWNLOADS

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Right Brain Therapy : Benefits For Trauma Survivors

right brain therapy

 

 

How Useful Is Right Brain Therapy For Trauma Survivors?

Why is it that right brain therapy may be more appropriate for trauma survivors as opposed to therapies that concentrate largely upon the left brain?

Right Brain And How We Relate To Others :

One of the main symptoms of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (from which we may suffer if we experienced significant and protracted childhood trauma) is having problems relating to others.

The brain is made up of two halves, called hemispheres : the left hemisphere (or, left brain) and the right hemisphere (or, right brain). It is the right brain that plays a vital role in how we relate to others because it is intimately involved with many functions that affect how we get along, or, don’t get along, with other people. These functions include :

– our ability to empathize with other people

– our ability to trust others

– our ability to identify with others

– our ability to read the emotions of other people from their facial expressions

– our ability to form healthy attachments with others

– non-conscious communication

Because these functions can be impaired if we have complex PTSD, and because they are controlled largely by the right brain, it follows logically that therapy to restore these functions to their optimum levels should, too, concentrate on the right brain.

Why Do These Functions Reside In The Right Brain?

This is because, in the first two years of life, according to psychodynamic theory, our interactions with our primary caregiver very significantly lay the foundations of our emotional life, including our expectations regarding relationships with others ; these expectations are encoded, on an unconscious level, in the right brain.

Right Brain Therapy And Self-Esteem :

Those with complex PTSD also frequently have significant problems in relation to their sense of self-esteem and therapy for this, too, is also likely to be especially effective when it concentrates upon the right brain. Again, according to psychodynamic theory, this is because the foundations of our self-esteem are (and it is worth repeating) acquired in our first two years of life and are encoded, on an unconscious level, in the right brain.

It follows, therefore, that if our interactions with our primary caregiver in the first two years of our lives are dysfunctional in a way that leads us to believe others do not regard us as of value and worth, we are at high risk of developing into adults who have an ingrained, deeply embedded, unconscious set of negative expectations with regard our relationships with others and our self-esteem.

In other words, such poor expectations regarding our relationships with others and low self-esteem have their foundations in a set of unconscious beliefs, stored in the right brain, that were laid down during the first two years of our lives.

Right Brain And Our Sense Of Safety :

Another feature of complex PTSD is that of a constant feeling of being unsafe and under threat. Research conducted by Schorre (2003) suggests that the sense of how safe, or unsafe, we feel is largely dictated by the right brain.

How Does Right Brain Therapy Work?

Right brain therapy can work by modifying behavior patterns encoded on an unconscious level in the right brain.

Right Brain And Implicit Memory :

Memories stored in the right brain before the age of about two years are known as IMPLICIT memories. This means we are unable to articulate them in words as they are not stored at a linguistic level. Therefore, such memories can only make themselves known to us in ways that are non-verbal (e.g. via our feelings, body sensations and mental imagery).

However, when these memories are triggered and give rise to these feelings, body sensations and mental images we are unaware of their origin for the very reason that they derive from these unconscious/implicit memories in the right brain.

Only right brain therapy then, that can modify these implicit memories on an unconscious level, may be truly effective as left brain therapy, relying on language, is unable to effectively connect with such non – linguistically stored memories.

Examples Of Right Brain Therapy :

These include :

– Art therapy

– Play therapy

– Hypnosis

– Mental imagery

 



 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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Complex PTSD Treatment

Complex PTSD treatment

What is the best complex PTSD treatment?

The NHS (UK) recommend that those suffering from complex PTSD undergo three stages of treatment. These are as follows :

1) STABILISATION

2) TRAUMA-FOCUSED THERAPY

3) REINTEGRATION

Let’s look at each of these a little more closely :

REINTEGRATION

NHS guidelines suggest that during the first stage, stabilsation, the individual being treated for complex PTSD may wish to focus on:

– redeveloping an ability to trust others

– reestablishing an emotional connection with friends and family

– learning to live in the present again (as opposed to staying trapped in the past ). This normally involves learning to feel safe again and reducing the level of fear that traumatic memories have hitherto provoked (often manifested in the disturbing form of nightmares and flashbacks).

The aim of this first stage of treatment is to improve the individual’s level of functioning to the point whereby s/he is able to start functioning again on a daily basis, no longer paralysed by anxiety.

TRAUMA-FOCUSED THERAPY

These include :

(The importance of engaging with an appropriately trained and experienced professional if considering these treatments is emphasized.)

REINTEGRATION

  • i.e. reintegration into society and the development of improved, more trusting relationships with others (one of the hallmarks of complex PTSD is to avoid others and self-isolate, leading to a vicious cycle driven by operant conditioning and loss of confidence).

What About Medication?

In cases whereby psychotherapy is not helpful or appropriate, the NHS (UK) suggest that antidepressants may be of benefit to some individuals.

Links :

For those who would like extremely detailed information relating to ISTSS ‘s guidelines for the treatment of complex PTSD, it is possible to download the relevant PDF from this here.

The main NHS (UK) website can be found by clicking here.

eBook :

The above eBook is now available from Amazon for instant download. Click on image or here.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

What Is Clinical Hypnosis?

what is clinical hypnosis?

What is clinical hypnosis? In the hypnotic state, the individual becomes extremely relaxed and has an increased ability to concentrate and focus which, in turn, can allow him/her to become more receptive to, and respond more positively to, therapy.

Hypnosis, per se, is not a therapy, but, rather, a tool that can increase the effectiveness of therapies administered to the individual whilst that individual is in hypnosis.

When hypnosis is used in this way (as a medium through which other therapies are delivered), it is referred to as hypnotherapy or clinical hypnosis.

Therefore, a person is not actually treated with hypnosis, but, rather, whilst in hypnosis.

Why Might A Therapy Be More Effective When Received In The Hypnotic State ?

It has been theorized that when in hypnosis the individual enters a state of altered consciousness (see below) that, temporarily, dampens down the activity of the conscious/rational parts of the brain which, in turn, allows the therapy being received greater access to the subconscious and, therefore, makes it more likely to help the individual overcome dysfunctional thoughts, feelings and behaviors.

Hypnosis And Brain Wave Studies: 

When in hypnosis, there is increasing evidence to suggest the individual has entered an altered state of consciousness. For example, there are three types of normal consciousness :

  • rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (dreaming)
  • non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep (non-dreaming sleep)
  • being awake

By using brain scanning techniques to monitor brain activity it has been found that, when in hypnosis, the brain produces a different brain-wave pattern when compared to the brain wave patterns generated by each of the above three states of normal consciousness.

Which Therapies May Be Integrated With Hypnosis In Order To Augment Their Effects?

Hypnosis can be used as a tool to increase the effectiveness of various therapies and therapeutic techniques including the following:

  • cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
  • person-centered counselling
  • solutions focused therapy
  • cognitive analytic therapy
  • eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
  • therapeutic suggestions
  • exposure therapy
  • free association
  • physical and mental relaxation
  • exposure therapy

Those trained in the use of clinical hypnosis include some doctors, some psychiatrists, some psychologists, some dentists and some practitioners of various types of psychotherapy.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc, PGDE(FAHE)

 

 

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Ego State Therapy For Treatment Of CPTSD

ego states therapy

EGO STATE THERAPY is an approach to treating complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cPTSD) and is sometimes referred to as ‘parts work.’

In particular, this therapy is designed to help treat symptoms of CPTSD which come under the headings of :

  • avoidance symptoms
  • intrusive symptoms
  • depressive symptoms

Let’s briefly look at each of these three types of symptoms :

AVOIDANCE SYMPTOMS :

These include avoiding places, people, events and situations which remind one of one’s past trauma. However, individuals often employ psychological defenses (usually unconsciously) as a way of avoiding accepting the reality of their childhood traumatic experiences; these psychological defenses include :

Finally, people who have suffered traumatic childhoods may use dysfunctional coping strategies to avoid their emotional pain which, in turn, can lead to addictions such as :

  • addiction to alcohol
  • addiction to drugs (both illegal and prescribed such as sleeping tablets and tranquilizers)
  • addiction to gambling
  • sex addiction
  • comfort food / carbohydrate addiction
  • excessive exercise
  • addiction to self-cutting / self-harm with short-term effect of relieving unbearable stress/anxiety

INTRUSIVE SYMPTOMS :

These include nightmares, flashbacks, hypervigilance, anxiety, feelings of aggression and irritablity ; such symptoms can also be categorized as high-arousal symptoms.

DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS :

These include despair, shame, inadequacy, unworthiness, hopelessness, helplessness and a sense of being trapped in a tormenting frame of mind, with no escape route (this is sometimes referred to as ‘learned helplessness.’
Feeling one has no hope is a particularly invidious symptom as it is known that feelings of hope, even when highly distressed over long periods, lowers the probability of suicide attempts; logically, therefore, the opposite holds true.

Depressive symptoms can also be categorized as low-arousal symptoms.

‘PARTS’ WORK :

Ego states theory involves a technique known as parts work.

Parts work is based upon the theory that as a psychological defense we unconsciously ‘compartmentalize’ different aspects of our personalities to enable us to ‘mentally partition-off’ the ‘parts’ of ourselves that we find unacceptable, and/or that contain intolerable memories, from the more acceptable ‘parts’ of ourselves that allow (at least a semblance of) day-to-day functioning.

These ‘parts’, or ego states, that hold we find unacceptable and/or hold distressing memories frequently reflect earlier developmental phases in our lives that occurred during our traumatic childhood and that are therefore related to traumatic memories.

How Can These Parts That Reflect Earlier Developmental Phases Manifest Themselves Now We Are Adults?

These parts may manifest themselves when we are under stress in the form of regressive behaviors.

For example, under extreme stress we may display child-like tantrums or behave in an aggressive, rebellious manner like that of a young teenager. Or, when upset, we may curl up on our beds clutching a soft toy.

Internalized Parts :

We may, too, possess ‘parts’ of ourselves that we have internalized from emotionally significant others (usually parents or primary-carers) during our childhood.

For example, if we had a parent who was highly critical of us when we were children, we may find we are prone to judging ourselves with a very unforgiving and self-lacerating attitude, constantly feeling that we failed to meet the exacting standards that we’ve set ourselves.

Or, if we had a parent / primary-carer who was highly religious and regarded us as fundamentally flawed and sinful, we may, as adults, find ourselves tormented by fears of ‘eternal damnation’.

INTERNAL FAMILY SYSTEMS (IFS) THERAPY:

IFS therapy is perhaps the most well known therapy to incorporate ‘parts work.’ It is based on the idea that the individual has three types of parts; these are as follows :

  • Exile parts
  • Manager parts
  • Firefighter parts

ego state therapy

Let’s briefly look at each of these in turn :

EXILE PARTS :

As the name suggests, these are the parts of ourselves that developed as a result of the damage done to our personalities by our childhood trauma and which we largely keep banished and cut off from conscious awareness / repressed / suppressed.

The exile parts are kept closed off from conscious awareness as a means of psychological self-protection as these parts contain distressing memories and painful emotions such as neediness/dependency, intense anger, grief, fear, shame, loneliness and vulnerability.

MANAGER PARTS :

These are the parts of ourselves that try to keep us in control and allow us to function on a day-to-day basis and keep extreme/distressing/counterproductive emotions at bay. Frequently, too, these parts are extremely self-critical.

FIREFIGHTER PARTS :

These parts attempt to protect us from the emotional pain the comes upon us when our exile parts start to break through and impinge upon our consciousness and behavior (as may happen,for instance, during periods of intense stress and/or when we are reminded – either consciously or unconsciously – of our childhood trauma).

However, they do this by causing us to behave in impulsive, and, in the long-term, self-destructive ways such as excessive drinking, abuse of narcotics, workaholism, risky, promiscuous sex, gambling and overeating.

Link :

To learn more about IFS therapy and how it works, click here.

EBook:

CPTSD ebook

Above eBook now available on Amazon for instant download. Click here.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Effects Of Trauma Should Be Addressed Rather Than Its Events

addressing effects of trauma

According to J Fisher, PhD, Assistant Educational Director of The Sensorimotor Psychotherapy Institute and author of the book Healing The Fragmented Selves Of Trauma Survivors, it is of greater importance to address the effects of a person’s traumatic past rather than its specific events. Why should this be?

Sigmund Freud, often referred to as the ‘father of psychoanalysis’, originally treated his patients by helping them to remember, and piece together, their childhood traumatic experiences, the memory of which had been largely repressed.

The idea was that by talking about what had happened to them during childhood, and bringing their traumatic memories into conscious awareness, they would be able to develop a coherent narrative relating to their adverse experiences which would, in turn, alleviate their psychological distress and the symptoms pertaining to their early life trauma.

This kind of therapy is usually referred to as talk therapy or psychodynamic psychotherapy.

Possible long-term effects of childhood trauma

Above : Possible long-term effects of childhood trauma

However, various researchers (e.g. Herman, 1992) have highlighted the fact that many therapists who have adopted this approach to treating their traumatized patients / clients have found that these same patients / clients are made worse rather than better by this ‘talking cure’ strategy.

Specifically, it had been found that patients / clients, when treated in such a way, can become flooded and overwhelmed by the myriad implicit memories this form of therapy is prone, inadvertently, to trigger. To read my article about trauma and implicit (also referred to as non-declarative) memories, click here.

In her book, Fisher takes the view that, rather than bringing into conscious awareness the ‘full narrative’ of our childhood trauma and replaying it in its raw form until we can ‘face-up’ to it, it is more important to learn how to deal with the effects /symptoms of the trauma, such as learning to feel safe,  secure and relaxed in the here and now and to ameliorate present feelings of fear and panic.

Fisher recommends the following cutting-edge therapies for addressing the effects of trauma : mindfulness a based therapies, internal family systems therapy, sensorimotor psychotherapy and clinical hypnotherapy.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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