Category Archives: Bpd Articles

Four Types Of ‘Dysregulation’ Displayed By BPD Sufferers

childhood trauma fact sheet51 1 200x60 - Four Types Of 'Dysregulation' Displayed By BPD Sufferers

BPD And Dysregulation :

We have already seen from many other articles that I have published on this site that those who have suffered severe and protracted childhood trauma are at greatly increased risk of going on to develop borderline personality disorder (BPD) than those who were fortunate enough to have experienced a relatively stable upbringing.

One of the main symptoms of this very serious and life-threatening condition (about ninety per cent of sufferers attempt suicide and about ten per cent die by suicide) is termed ‘DYSREGULATION.’

What Is Meant By The Term ‘Dysregulation?’

When the term DYSREGULATION is used in the psychological literature it most commonly refers to the great difficulty the BPD sufferer has controlling behavior and emotional states. However, more specifically, the dysregulation that those with BPD experience can be sub-divided into four particular types; these are :

1) EMOTIONAL DYSREGULATION

2) BEHAVIORAL DYSREGULATION

3) COGNITIVE DYSREGULATION

4) SELF DYSREGULATION

Below, I briefly define each of these four types of dysregulation :

  • Emotional Dysregulation :

This type of dysregulation refers to extreme sensitivity and difficulty controlling intense emotions. Individuals suffering from this type of dissociation not only feel emotions far more deeply than the average person, but also take longer to return to their ‘baseline’ / ‘normal’ mood.

For example, a person with BPD who is emotionally dysregulated may be easily moved to intense expressions of anger and then take far longer to calm down again compared to the average person. Others may disparagingly (due to their lack of knowledge and understanding of this life-threatening – see above – and acutely, indeed uniquely, mentally painful condition) describe such an individual as extremely ‘thin’skinned’, as ‘having a chip on his/her shoulder’, ‘a drama queen’ or as or as someone who is prone to extreme ‘over-reactions.’

A leading theory as to why individuals with BPD are emotionally dysregulated is that the development of their AMYGDALA (a brain region intimately involved with how we express emotions and how we react to stress) has been damaged as a result of severe childhood trauma.

pp - Four Types Of 'Dysregulation' Displayed By BPD Sufferers

  • BEHAVIORAL DYSREGULATION :

This type of dysregulation refers to the severe problems those with BPD can have controlling their behavior ; such individuals may be highly impulsive and liable to indulge in high-risk behaviors that are self-destructive. Such behaviors may include :

    • excessive drinking
    • excessive drug taking
    • gambling
    • compulsive self-harm
    • risky sex
    • drink-driving / dangerous driving
    • excessive / compulsive spending leading to debt problems

 

  • COGNITIVE DYSREGULATION :

This type of dysregulation refers to disorganized thinking which may manifest itself as paranoid-type thinking and/or as states of DISSOCIATION.

BPD sufferers are also prone to ‘black and white’ / ‘all or nothing’ type thinking, indecision, self-doubt, distrust of others and intense self-hatred.

 

  • SELF DYSREGULATION :

This type of dysregulation refers to the weak sense of their own identity many BPD sufferers feel ( a typical BPD sufferer might express this by saying something along the lines of ‘I’ve no idea who I am‘), feelings of emptiness, and the difficulty many BPD sufferers experienced expressing their likes, dislikes, needs and feelings,

Dysregulation And Stress :

Individuals with BPD are far less able to cope with stress than the average person and dysregulation (relating to all four of the above categories) is especially likely to occur when such individuals are experiencing stress ; indeed, the greater the stress the individual is experiencing, the more dysregulated he/she is likely to become.

 

RESOURCES :

SELF-HYPNOSIS DOWNLOADABLE AUDIO :

‘CONTROL YOUR EMOTIONS.’ Click here for further details.

eBook :

DIGITAL BOOK THUMBNAIL 3 e1502866194952 - Four Types Of 'Dysregulation' Displayed By BPD Sufferers

Above eBook now available from Amazon for instant download. Click on image above or click HERE for further information.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Impulse Control : Study Showing Its Vital Importance

childhood trauma fact sheet51 1 200x60 - Impulse Control : Study Showing Its Vital Importance

We have already seen that those who suffer such severe, protracted childhood trauma that they go on to develop borderline personality disorder (BPD) have very significant problems regarding self-regulation (i.e, controlling intense emotions) and with IMPULSE CONTROL (along with a wide range of other symptoms).

This impaired ability to control impulses, in turn, can have a seriously adverse effect on myriad aspects of the individual’s life, potentially leading to, for example, relationships problems, substance abuse, gambling, compulsive sex, poor financial control due to compulsive shopping, lowered work /academic accomplishments, violent outbursts and many other difficulties.

In this article, I will briefly outline a study that helps to show the relationship between poor impulse control in childhood and later life success :

THE STUDY ON IMPULSE CONTROL AS A CHILD AND FUTURE LIFE OUTCOMES :

The study was conducted by Walter Mischel and E.B Ebbeson. A group of children were given two options :

OPTION ONE : They could have one marshmallow immediately.

OR :

OPTION TWO : They could have two marshmallows if they were prepared to wait fifteen minutes for them.

The children were then left alone with the marshmallows.

th 14 1 - Impulse Control : Study Showing Its Vital Importance

RESULTS :

Some children gave in to temptation immediately and some managed to defer gratification for a short amount of time (but not the full fifteen minutes).

HOWEVER : About one third of the children were able to defer gratification for the FULL FIFTEEN MINUTES (in the main they distracted themselves from the temptation to eat the marshmallow by playing or singing to themselves, according to the researchers).

TWELVE  YEARS LATER, a follow-up study was carried out on these same individuals. The results of this follow-up study were :

The individuals’ PERFORMANCE ON THE IMPULSE CONTROL TEST (as described above) was more highly correlated with future life success than any other measure, including socioeconomic status and I.Q.

In other words, on average, the children who managed to wait the full fifteen minutes before eating went on to have significantly more successful lives (as defined and measured by the twelve year follow-up study) than those children who were unable to do so. The fact that the level of an individual’s impulse control appears, according to this particular study, to be a better predictor of that same individual’s future life success than either their socioeconomic status or I.Q. implies that how well we are able to control our impulses is of vital importance.

 

RESOURCES :

eBook :

DIGITAL BOOK THUMBNAIL 3 e1502866194952 - Impulse Control : Study Showing Its Vital Importance

 

Above eBook now available on Amazon for instant download. Click here or on above image for further details. (Other titles available.)

 

Self-hypnosis download :

Improve Impulse Control. CLICK HERE FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Self-Acceptance More Helpful To Mental Health Than Self-Esteem.

childhood trauma fact sheet51 1 200x60 - Self-Acceptance More Helpful To Mental Health Than Self-Esteem.

We have already seen that, most frequently because how they were made to feel about themselves by parents / primary care-givers whilst growing up, one of the most painful, demoralizing and soul-destroying symptoms those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) must strive to endure is irrational feelings of self-hatred, self-loathing and self-disgust. (If you would like to read my article entitled : ‘ Childhood Trauma: How The Child’s View Of Their Own ‘Badness’ Is Perpetuated’ , please click here.)

Indeed, many individuals with BPD suffer from frequent, intrusive thoughts such as : ‘I am a terrible person’ ; ‘I am of absolutely no value to anybody whatsoever’ and so on…

In other words, their self-esteem is extremely low and sometimes it is hard to change such deeply entrenched, negative self-views through therapy, at least at the beginning of any such therapy. (If you would like to read my article entitled : ‘Childhood Trauma : A Destroyer of Self-Esteem’ , please click here.)

self acceptance 200x150 - Self-Acceptance More Helpful To Mental Health Than Self-Esteem.

However, one effective way of breaking into, and disrupting, this profoundly ingrained and seemingly perpetual cycle of self-derogatory thinking may be to develop first an attitude of SELF-ACCEPTANCE.

In relation to this possibility, Huber (2001) suggests that, in order to develop an attitude of self-acceptance, we can start off simply by trying to attain ‘a single moment of self-acceptance.’ For example, instead of thinking a thought such as :

I am a terrible person‘, we can try to replace it with the self-accepting thought :

‘Given how I was made to feel about myself as a child, it is completely understandable why I view myself as a terrible person.

Gradually, we can try to increase the frequency with which we modify our self-lacerating thinking style so that, when negative thoughts arise, we compassionately accept why we are having them as a matter of newly acquired habit.

The advantages of developing a self-accepting style of thinking, as outlined above, has been backed up by research. For example, Neff (2009) found that self-compassion is more positively correlated with psychological health than self-esteem is.

Neff also points out that, whilst self-esteem, at least in part, depends upon how we perceive others’ evaluation of us and how well we perceive ourselves to be succeeding in life’s myriad aspects at any given time, self-compassion (by definition) is self-generated and comes entirely from within ; it is always available to us no matter what the external circumstances. Because of this, it is more reliable and dependable than self-esteem and can comfortably co-exist along with feelings of inadequacy or, even, gross inadequacy.

However, we need not equate self-acceptance with ‘standing still in life’ and with not trying to improve ourselves – indeed, self-acceptance can be a great aid to self-improvement as it allows us to take a compassionate attitude towards ourselves when we face inevitable set-backs on our journey of personal development (as opposed to despising ourselves and giving up).

 

RESOURCES :

SELF-ACCEPTANCE : SELF-HYPNOSIS DOWNLOAD.

Click here for more information.
 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

What Are The Differences Between BPD And Complex PTSD? : A Study

childhood trauma fact sheet51 1 200x60 - What Are The Differences Between BPD And Complex PTSD? : A Study

Because there is a considerable overlap in symptoms between those suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) and those suffering from complex posttraumatic disorder (complex PTSD) , those with the latter condition can be misdiagnosed as suffering from the former condition (you can read my article about this by clicking here).

In order to help clarify the differences between the two conditions and help show how they are distinct from one another, this article is about a research study which sought to delineate these two very serious psychiatric conditions.

What Are The Differences In Symptoms Between Those Suffering From Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) And Those Suffering From Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD)?

A study into the different symptoms displayed by sufferers of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) involving the study of two hundred at eighty adult women who had experienced abuse during their childhoods and published in the European Journal of Psychotraumatology in 2014 compared the symptoms of those suffering from BPD with those suffering from complex PTSD.

The following results from the study were obtained :

SYMPTOMS SHARED APPROXIMATELY EQUALLY BETWEEN THOSE SUFFERING FROM BPD AND THOSE SUFFERING FROM COMPLEX PTSD :

Some symptoms were found to be shared approximately equally between those suffering from  borderline personality disorder (BPD) and those suffering from complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). The symptoms that fell into this category were as follows :

  • AFFECTIVE DYSREGULATION (ANGER) i.e. frequent feelings of intense rage that the individual cannot control (regulate)
  • VERY LOW FEELINGS OF SELF-WORTH
  • AFFECTIVE DYSREGULATION (SENSITIVE) i.e. feelings of hypersensitivity that cannot be controlled (regulated)
  • INTENSE FEELINGS OF GUILT
  • INTERPERSONAL DETACHMENT / ALONENESS i.e. feeling cut-off and alienated from others, isolated and apart
  • FEELINGS OF EMPTINESS

However, some symptoms were found to be significantly more prevalent amongst those suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) than amongst those suffering from complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) as shown below :

SYMPTOMS THAT WERE FOUND TO BE SIGNIFICANTLY MORE PREVALENT AMONGST THOSE SUFFERING FROM BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER (BPD) THAN AMONGST THOSE SUFFERING FROM COMPLEX POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (COMPLEX PTSD) :

 

eBooks :

DIGITAL BOOK THUMBNAIL 1 1 - What Are The Differences Between BPD And Complex PTSD? : A Study    DIGITAL BOOK THUMBNAIL 3 - What Are The Differences Between BPD And Complex PTSD? : A Study

 

Above eBooks now available from Amazon for instant download. For further details, click here.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

 

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Retraumatization Caused By Psychiatric Care Institutions

childhood trauma fact sheet51 1 200x60 - Retraumatization Caused By Psychiatric Care Institutions

Retraumatization :

If the trauma we experienced as children was severe enough, we may, as adults, at one time or another, require residential psychiatric care (such as inpatient treatment on a psychiatric ward in a hospital, as was necessary in my own case on several occasions).

Obviously, the quality of the care we receive in psychiatric facilities can vary very considerably ; unfortunately, this means that, if we are unlucky, we may find ourselves in an environment that not only fails to be therapeutic, but is actively retraumatizing.

In What Ways Can A Psychiatric Facility Retraumatize Us?

According to Fallot and Harris (2001), the ways in which we can be retraumatized in psychiatric institutions can be divided into two main categories ; these are :

1) BY THE SYSTEM (policies, culture, procedures, rules etc). For example :

2) BY THE RELATIONSHIPS WE HAVE WITH THOSE ENTRUSTED WITH OUR CARE (e.g nurses, psychiatrists etc)

Let’s look at each of these in turn :

1)  RETRAUMATIZATION BY THE SYSTEM. Examples of how this may occur include :

– lack of choice regarding treatment ; for example, being prescribed medication when a form of psychotherapy may be more appropriate and more effective.

– not being given the opportunity to give feedback to the professionals caring for us about how we feel in relation to the treatment we are receiving

– being treated impersonally and not as an individual but, instead, according to how one has been ‘labelled’ by one’s diagnosis (two individuals with the same diagnosis may manifest very different symptom and have very different needs. In the case of those who have been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, such individuals may experience the additional trauma as being regarded as ‘a trouble maker’ due to misinterpretation of the true causes of their behavior.

– constantly having to retell personal details relating to one’s psychological condition.

2)  RETRAUMATIZATION BY THOSE ENTRUSTED WITH OUR CARE.  Examples of how this may occur include :

– betrayal of trust

– feeling one is not being listened to and/or is being rushed when explaining one’s condition

– feeling one’s views are being dismissed /not taken seriously / invalidated

– being spoken to disrespectfully, insultingly or inappropriately

– being subjected to punitive ‘treatment’ methods (e.g. locked in isolation room without toilet or proper bedding)

– lack of communication / collaboration between patient and staff

My Own Experiences :

SECTIONING :  When my illness was at its worst, I was sectioned (despite my ardent protests) because it was felt I was a high suicide risk (which, in truty, I was) ; however, being sectioned accentuated feelings of powerlessness, humiliation and loss of autonomy

AGGRESSIVE/THREATENING PATIENTS : Unfortunately, some patients one is exposed to in psychiatric wards can be aggressive and intimidating, leading to feelings of being unsafe and constantly under threat

UNPROFESSIONAL STAFF : Sadly, occasionally one comes across staff who are not above behaving unprofessionally ; this can exacerbate feelings of mistrust

ELECTRO-CONVULSIVE SHOCK TREATMENT (ECT) : Because I was so ill – utterly unable to function and, indeed, almost catatonic at times, as well as a very high suicide risk, I was ‘strongly encouraged’ to undergo ECT treatment ‘voluntarily’ on several occasions ; in fact, though, there was no genuine choice as I was told that, if I did not undergo it ‘voluntarily,’ I would be sectioned and the act of sectioning me would, in turn, give the hospital the legal right to administer the treatment even without my consent. Due to the controversial nature of ECT treatment, this was an intimidating, degrading and, quite arguably, dehumanizing position in which to be placed. (To read my article about my experience of ECT, click here.)

COMPULSION TO ABSCOND :  Indeed, I often found the conditions to which I was confined so intolerable that, on three occasions, I absconded (each time with the intention of committing suicide – to read about one such incident, see my article On Being Suicidal (Or, Why I Carried A Rope In A Bag Around London For Three Months ).

Obviously, vulnerable patients who find themselves compelled to abscond, as I did, potentially expose themselves to a high level of risk in a multitude of ways.

The Trauma-Informed Environment :

Tailor and Harris (2001) state, based on the main ways in which retraumatization may occur, therapeutic environments that cater for the traumatized (e.g. those suffering from PTSD or complex-PTSD) should be trauma-informed. Trauma-informed environments should :

1) Be calm and comfortable

2) Provide the patient with choice

3) Empower the patient

4) Recognize the strengths and abilities of the patient

5) Involve the patient, as far as possible, in all decision-making processes.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Trauma Triggers : Definition And Examples

 childhood trauma fact sheet51 1 200x60 - Trauma Triggers : Definition And Examples
Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

BPD And Hallucinations

childhood trauma fact sheet51 1 200x60 - BPD And Hallucinations

What Are Hallucinations?

Hallucinations are PERCEPTIONS that people experience but which are NOT caused by external stimuli/ input. However, to the person experiencing hallucinations, these perceptions feel AS IF THEY ARE REAL and that they are being generated by stimuli/ input outside of themselves (in fact, of course, the perceptions are being INTERNALLY GENERATED by the brain of the person who is experiencing the hallucination).

Different Types Of Hallucination :

There are several different types of hallucination and I summarize these below :

  • VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS – these involve ‘seeing’ something that in reality does not exist or ‘seeing’ something that does exist in a DISTORTED / ALTERED form.
  • AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS – these, most often, involve ‘hearing’ voices that have no external reality (though other ‘sounds’ may be hallucinated, too).
  • TACTILE HALLUCINATIONS – these occur when an individual feels as if s/he is being touched when, in fact, s/he isn’t (for example, feeling the sensation of insects crawling over one’s skin).
  • GUSTATORY HALLUCINATIONS – these occur when a person perceives a ‘taste’ in his/her mouth in the absence of any external to the person causing the taste.
  • OLFACTORY HALLUCINATION – this type of hallucination is sometimes also referred to as phantosmia and involves perceiving a smell which isn’t actually present.

th 28 200x141 - BPD And Hallucinations

BPD And Hallucinations :

Mild hallucinations are actually not uncommon even amongst people with no mental illness (e.g. believing one has heard the doorbell ring when it hasn’t).

At the other end of the scale, however, are fully-blown hallucinations that involve the person who is experiencing them being psychotically detached from reality; for example, someone experiencing a psychotic episode might hear, very clearly and distinctly, voices that s/he fully believes are coming from an external source (such as ‘the devil’ or a dead relative). A person suffering from such hallucinations cannot in any way be convinced that the ‘voices’ are being generated within his/her own head/brain.

It is uncommon for people suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) to suffer from the most serious types of hallucinations (as described above); however, under acute stress (and those with BPD are, of course, far more likely to experience acute stress than the average person), the BPD sufferer may experience hallucinations that fall somewhere between the mild and severe types.

For example, if s/he (the BPD sufferer) was constantly belittled and humiliated by a parent when growing up, s/he may, when experiencing severe stress, ‘hear’ the ‘parent in their head’ saying such things as ‘you’re useless’ or ‘you’re worthless.’

However, unlike the person suffering unambiguously from psychosis, when this occurs s/he is not completely detached from reality but is aware the ‘voices’ are being generated within his/her own mind and are imaginary as opposed to real.

Severe hallucinations may be indicative of schizophrenia but can also have other causes which include : delirium tremens (linked to alcohol abuse), narcotics (e.g. LSD) and sensory deprivation.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

‘Amygdala Hijack’ And BPD

cropped childhood trauma fact sheet15 200x5921 200x59 - 'Amygdala Hijack' And BPD

One of the main, and most problematic, symptoms that those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer from is the experiencing of disproportionately intense emotional responses when under stress and an inability to control them or efficiently recover and calm down once such tempestuous emotions have been aroused. This very serious symptom of BPD is also often referred to as emotional dysregulation.

The main theory as to why such problems managing emotions occur is that damage has been done to the development of the brain region known as the amygdala in early life due to chronic trauma and, consequently, this area of the brain having been overloaded and overwhelmed by emotions such as fear and anxiety during early development causing a longterm malfunction which can extend well into adulthood or even endure for the BPD sufferer’s entire lifespan (in the absence of effective therapy).

The damage done to the development of the amygdala means that, as adults, when under stress, BPD sufferers are frequently likely to experience what is sometimes referred to as an emotional highjack or, as in the title of this article, an amygdala hijack.

What Is ‘Amygdala Hijack’ And How Does It Prevent Emotional Calm?

When external stimuli are sufficiently stressful, the amygdala ‘shuts down’ the prefrontal cortex (the prefrontal cortex is responsible planning, decision making and intellectual abilities).

In this way, when a certain threshold of stress is passed (and this threshold in far lower in BPD sufferers than the average person’s) the amygdala (responsible for generating emotions, particularly negative emotions such as anxiety, fear and aggression) essentially ‘takes over’ and ‘overrides’ the prefrontal cortex.

download 3 5 - 'Amygdala Hijack' And BPD

Above : under sufficient stress the prefrontal cortex (the seat of rational thought) is shut down, leaving the amygdala (the seat of intense, negative emotions like anxiety, fear and aggression) to ‘run riot.’

As such, the prefrontal cortex ‘goes offline’ leaving the BPD sufferer flooded with negative emotional responses and unable to reason, by logic or rational thought processes, his/her way out of them.

When the amygdala is ‘highjacked’ in this way, there are three main signs. These are :

1) An intense emotional reaction to the event (or external stimuli)

2) The onset of this intense emotional reaction is sudden

3) It is not until the BPD sufferer has calmed down and the prefrontal cortex comes ‘back online’  (which takes far longer for him/her than it would for the average person) that s/he realizes his/her response (whilst under ‘amygdala highjacking’) was inappropriate, often giving rise to feelings of embarrassment, humiliation, guilt, remorse and regret.

Resources:

Click here for further information.

 

eBook :

61VHBbAyGwL. UY250  - 'Amygdala Hijack' And BPD

Above eBook now available on Amazon. Click here for further information.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

 

 

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

Borderline Personality Disorder Is Not A Choice

cropped childhood trauma fact sheet15 200x5921 200x59 - Borderline Personality Disorder Is Not A Choice

Nobody chooses to suffer from borderline personality disorder ; this is obvious.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is probably the most tormenting and agonizing psychiatric condition known to man. One in ten sufferers end up killing themselves after years, or even decades, of appalling mental suffering. Due to the disturbed behavior that accompanies BPD,  sufferers may become social pariahs and/or be rejected by their families – in the latter case, often by the very family member/s who have played a major role in causing the disorder ; I have said elsewhere that this is rather like somebody cutting off all your limbs and then blaming you for bleeding for over them. Or injecting you with a cancer causing agent and then blaming you for wasting away and dying.

One of the great torments of BPD sufferers is a belief that they are bad and that their behavior is due to some fundamental character flaw rather than due to a desperately serious psychiatric condition. It is this false belief (frequently caused by internalizing parental negative views of them whilst growing up) that contributes to many of the suicides and, as such, is a belief which is in urgent need of correcting.

On what grounds do I make this assertion? I summarize them below :

  • DAMAGE DONE TO THE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

The physical development of the following three brain regions is affected by our upbringing in early life and this physical development may be adversely affected if that upbringing is significantly dysfunctional.

  • AMYGDALA
  • HIPPOCAMPUS
  • ORBITOFRONTAK CORTEX

download 2 4 - Borderline Personality Disorder Is Not A Choice

Let’s look at each in turn:

AMYGDALA : This part of the brain controls emotions and, especially, negative emotions like fear, anxiety and aggression. It follows that because the amygdala has developed abnormally in BPD sufferers, they will be prone to experiencing abnormal levels of fear, anxiety and aggression.

HIPPOCAMPUS : This part of the brain plays a significant role in our ability to exert self-control. Again, it follows that because the hippocampus has developed abnormally in BPD sufferers, they will have difficulties with self-control, leading to impulsive and self-destructive behaviors.

ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX : This part of the brain is involved with planning and decision making. Yet again, it follows that because the orbitofrontal cortex has developed abnormally in BPD sufferers, they will have problems planning ahead (including poor ability to consider future implications of behaviors or to act in a premeditated or carefully deliberated manner) and be prone to irrational and illogical decision-making.

Furthermore, these three brain areas play a very significant role in mood regulation / our ability to control how we feel. As these three areas have developed abnormally in BPD sufferers, this helps to explain why their moods can fluctuate so dramatically, in turn leading to extensive problems both forming and maintaining healthy relationships with others.

Now, consider this : If a person was hit on the head with a hammer, causing brain damage which, in turn, affected how s/he felt and behaved, should s/he (the person hit) be blamed for this change in behavior? No, of course not. So, why should a different view be taken in the case of BPD sufferers? Indeed, to take a different view would seem suspiciously like discrimination against mental illness and a failure of imagination in regard to how devastating the infliction of emotional suffering can be.
clinical hypnotherapy 728 90 8 - Borderline Personality Disorder Is Not A Choice

Types Of Dysfunctional Upbringing That May Damage These Brain Regions :

These include :

  • suffering abuse from parent/primary carer
  • being neglected by parent/primary carer
  • being brought up by a parent with a significant mental health problem
  • being brought up by a parent/primary carer who is an alcoholic
  • being brought up by a parent/primary carer who is a drug addict

What About The Role Of Genes?

There is NOT a gene for BPD.

However, some may be born with a greater vulnerability to being adversely affected by stressful environments due to high levels of sensitivity.

eBook :

61VHBbAyGwL. UY250  - Borderline Personality Disorder Is Not A Choice

Above eBook now available from Amazon for instant download. Click here for further details.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery

BPD Sufferers Over-React To Facial Expressions

cropped childhood trauma fact sheet15 200x5921 200x59 - BPD Sufferers Over-React To Facial Expressions
A study conducted by Donegan et al, 2003, found that sufferers of borderline personality disorder (BPD) were prone to interpreting neutral facial expressions as threatening facial expressions.

The study involved 30 participants split into two groups as follows :

Group 1 : This group consisted of 15 individuals who had been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD).

Group 2 : This was the control group, consisting of 15 individuals who did not have borderline personality disorder (BPD).

 

How Was The Study Conducted?

All 30 participants in the study were shown pictures of people with four types of facial expressions, these expressions were as follows :

  • neutral
  • happy
  • sad
  • fearful

Sometimes, too, the participants had to focus on single fixation point (rather than a picture of a face).

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging :

Whilst each of the participants was looking at each of the four different facial expressions, or at the single fixation point, they underwent a brain scanning process known as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

The purpose of undergoing the fMRI whilst looking at the pictures of facial expressions or at the single fixation point was to measure the level of activation in a region of the brain known as the amygdala. The amygdala, among other functions,  is involved in generating negative emotions.

images 46 - BPD Sufferers Over-React To Facial Expressions

What Were The Findings Of The Study?

When participants from GROUP 1 were shown pictures of faces displaying emotions (versus the single fixation point), their amygdalae were found to be more highly activated than were the amydalae of those from GROUP 2 whilst undergoing the same activities.

Furthermore, interviews after the participants were shown the pictures revealed that some in GROUP 1 had interpreted the neutral faces as being threatening.

What Can We Infer From This Study?

This study suggests that individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be prone to interpreting the facial expressions of others more negatively (e.g. as being threatening when this is not objectively the case) than those individuals who are relatively psychologically healthy.

According to this study, this would, at least in part, appear to be due to an abnormal physiological response in the brain, namely over activation of the amygdala in response to the emotional facial expressions of others.

This finding goes towards explaining why those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) tend to have severe problems in connection with their interpersonal relationships and often perceive others as threatening and as wanting to hurt them which, in turn, frequently gives rise to overly defensive behavior.

eBook:

61VHBbAyGwL. UY250  126x200 - BPD Sufferers Over-React To Facial Expressions

Above eBook now available for instant download from Amazon. Click here or on image above to obtain further details.

 

Resource :
10 steps insecurity relationships 728 90 - BPD Sufferers Over-React To Facial Expressions

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).
Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2017 Child Abuse, Trauma and Recovery