Author Archives: David Hosier Msc

Holder of MSc and post graduate teaching diploma in psychology. Highly experienced in education. Founder of childhoodtraumarecovery.com. Survivor of severe childhood trauma.

‘Amygdala Hijack’ And BPD

amygdala hijack

One of the main, and most problematic, symptoms that those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer from is the experiencing of disproportionately intense emotional responses when under stress and an inability to control them or efficiently recover and calm down once such tempestuous emotions have been aroused. This very serious symptom of BPD is also often referred to as emotional dysregulation.

The main theory as to why such problems managing emotions occur is that damage has been done to the development of the brain region known as the amygdala in early life due to chronic trauma and, consequently, this area of the brain having been overloaded and overwhelmed by emotions such as fear and anxiety during early development causing a longterm malfunction which can extend well into adulthood or even endure for the BPD sufferer’s entire lifespan (in the absence of effective therapy).

The damage done to the development of the amygdala means that, as adults, when under stress, BPD sufferers are frequently likely to experience what is sometimes referred to as an emotional highjack or, as in the title of this article, an amygdala hijack.

What Is ‘Amygdala Hijack’ And How Does It Prevent Emotional Calm?

When external stimuli are sufficiently stressful, the amygdala ‘shuts down’ the prefrontal cortex (the prefrontal cortex is responsible planning, decision making and intellectual abilities).

In this way, when a certain threshold of stress is passed (and this threshold in far lower in BPD sufferers than the average person’s) the amygdala (responsible for generating emotions, particularly negative emotions such as anxiety, fear and aggression) essentially ‘takes over’ and ‘overrides’ the prefrontal cortex.

amygdala hijack

Above : under sufficient stress the prefrontal cortex (the seat of rational thought) is shut down, leaving the amygdala (the seat of intense, negative emotions like anxiety, fear and aggression) to ‘run riot.’

As such, the prefrontal cortex ‘goes offline’ leaving the BPD sufferer flooded with negative emotional responses and unable to reason, by logic or rational thought processes, his/her way out of them.

When the amygdala is ‘highjacked’ in this way, there are three main signs. These are :

1) An intense emotional reaction to the event (or external stimuli)

2) The onset of this intense emotional reaction is sudden

3) It is not until the BPD sufferer has calmed down and the prefrontal cortex comes ‘back online’  (which takes far longer for him/her than it would for the average person) that s/he realizes his/her response (whilst under ‘amygdala highjacking’) was inappropriate, often giving rise to feelings of embarrassment, humiliation, guilt, remorse and regret.

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Borderline Personality Disorder Is Not A Choice

borderline personality disorder

Nobody chooses to suffer from borderline personality disorder ; this is obvious.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is probably the most tormenting and agonizing psychiatric condition known to man. One in ten sufferers end up killing themselves after years, or even decades, of appalling mental suffering. Due to the disturbed behavior that accompanies BPD,  sufferers may become social pariahs and/or be rejected by their families – in the latter case, often by the very family member/s who have played a major role in causing the disorder ; I have said elsewhere that this is rather like somebody cutting off all your limbs and then blaming you for bleeding for over them. Or injecting you with a cancer causing agent and then blaming you for wasting away and dying.

One of the great torments of BPD sufferers is a belief that they are bad and that their behavior is due to some fundamental character flaw rather than due to a desperately serious psychiatric condition. It is this false belief (frequently caused by internalizing parental negative views of them whilst growing up) that contributes to many of the suicides and, as such, is a belief which is in urgent need of correcting.

On what grounds do I make this assertion? I summarize them below :

  • DAMAGE DONE TO THE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

The physical development of the following three brain regions is affected by our upbringing in early life and this physical development may be adversely affected if that upbringing is significantly dysfunctional.

  • AMYGDALA
  • HIPPOCAMPUS
  • ORBITOFRONTAK CORTEX

borderline personality disorder

Let’s look at each in turn:

AMYGDALA : This part of the brain controls emotions and, especially, negative emotions like fear, anxiety and aggression. It follows that because the amygdala has developed abnormally in BPD sufferers, they will be prone to experiencing abnormal levels of fear, anxiety and aggression.

HIPPOCAMPUS : This part of the brain plays a significant role in our ability to exert self-control. Again, it follows that because the hippocampus has developed abnormally in BPD sufferers, they will have difficulties with self-control, leading to impulsive and self-destructive behaviors.

ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX : This part of the brain is involved with planning and decision making. Yet again, it follows that because the orbitofrontal cortex has developed abnormally in BPD sufferers, they will have problems planning ahead (including poor ability to consider future implications of behaviors or to act in a premeditated or carefully deliberated manner) and be prone to irrational and illogical decision-making.

Furthermore, these three brain areas play a very significant role in mood regulation / our ability to control how we feel. As these three areas have developed abnormally in BPD sufferers, this helps to explain why their moods can fluctuate so dramatically, in turn leading to extensive problems both forming and maintaining healthy relationships with others.

Now, consider this : If a person was hit on the head with a hammer, causing brain damage which, in turn, affected how s/he felt and behaved, should s/he (the person hit) be blamed for this change in behavior? No, of course not. So, why should a different view be taken in the case of BPD sufferers? Indeed, to take a different view would seem suspiciously like discrimination against mental illness and a failure of imagination in regard to how devastating the infliction of emotional suffering can be.

Types Of Dysfunctional Upbringing That May Damage These Brain Regions :

These include :

  • suffering abuse from parent/primary carer
  • being neglected by parent/primary carer
  • being brought up by a parent with a significant mental health problem
  • being brought up by a parent/primary carer who is an alcoholic
  • being brought up by a parent/primary carer who is a drug addict

What About The Role Of Genes?

There is NOT a gene for BPD.

However, some may be born with a greater vulnerability to being adversely affected by stressful environments due to high levels of sensitivity.

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Ego State Therapy For Treatment Of CPTSD

ego states therapy

EGO STATE THERAPY is an approach to treating complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cPTSD) and is sometimes referred to as ‘parts work.’

In particular, this therapy is designed to help treat symptoms of CPTSD which come under the headings of :

  • avoidance symptoms
  • intrusive symptoms
  • depressive symptoms

Let’s briefly look at each of these three types of symptoms :

AVOIDANCE SYMPTOMS :

These include avoiding places, people, events and situations which remind one of one’s past trauma. However, individuals often employ psychological defenses (usually unconsciously) as a way of avoiding accepting the reality of their childhood traumatic experiences; these psychological defenses include :

Finally, people who have suffered traumatic childhoods may use dysfunctional coping strategies to avoid their emotional pain which, in turn, can lead to addictions such as :

  • addiction to alcohol
  • addiction to drugs (both illegal and prescribed such as sleeping tablets and tranquilizers)
  • addiction to gambling
  • sex addiction
  • comfort food / carbohydrate addiction
  • excessive exercise
  • addiction to self-cutting / self-harm with short-term effect of relieving unbearable stress/anxiety

INTRUSIVE SYMPTOMS :

These include nightmares, flashbacks, hypervigilance, anxiety, feelings of aggression and irritablity ; such symptoms can also be categorized as high-arousal symptoms.

DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS :

These include despair, shame, inadequacy, unworthiness, hopelessness, helplessness and a sense of being trapped in a tormenting frame of mind, with no escape route (this is sometimes referred to as ‘learned helplessness.’
Feeling one has no hope is a particularly invidious symptom as it is known that feelings of hope, even when highly distressed over long periods, lowers the probability of suicide attempts; logically, therefore, the opposite holds true.

Depressive symptoms can also be categorized as low-arousal symptoms.

‘PARTS’ WORK :

Ego states theory involves a technique known as parts work.

Parts work is based upon the theory that as a psychological defense we unconsciously ‘compartmentalize’ different aspects of our personalities to enable us to ‘mentally partition-off’ the ‘parts’ of ourselves that we find unacceptable, and/or that contain intolerable memories, from the more acceptable ‘parts’ of ourselves that allow (at least a semblance of) day-to-day functioning.

These ‘parts’, or ego states, that hold we find unacceptable and/or hold distressing memories frequently reflect earlier developmental phases in our lives that occurred during our traumatic childhood and that are therefore related to traumatic memories.

How Can These Parts That Reflect Earlier Developmental Phases Manifest Themselves Now We Are Adults?

These parts may manifest themselves when we are under stress in the form of regressive behaviors.

For example, under extreme stress we may display child-like tantrums or behave in an aggressive, rebellious manner like that of a young teenager. Or, when upset, we may curl up on our beds clutching a soft toy.

Internalized Parts :

We may, too, possess ‘parts’ of ourselves that we have internalized from emotionally significant others (usually parents or primary-carers) during our childhood.

For example, if we had a parent who was highly critical of us when we were children, we may find we are prone to judging ourselves with a very unforgiving and self-lacerating attitude, constantly feeling that we failed to meet the exacting standards that we’ve set ourselves.

Or, if we had a parent / primary-carer who was highly religious and regarded us as fundamentally flawed and sinful, we may, as adults, find ourselves tormented by fears of ‘eternal damnation’.

INTERNAL FAMILY SYSTEMS (IFS) THERAPY:

IFS therapy is perhaps the most well known therapy to incorporate ‘parts work.’ It is based on the idea that the individual has three types of parts; these are as follows :

  • Exile parts
  • Manager parts
  • Firefighter parts

ego state therapy

Let’s briefly look at each of these in turn :

EXILE PARTS :

As the name suggests, these are the parts of ourselves that developed as a result of the damage done to our personalities by our childhood trauma and which we largely keep banished and cut off from conscious awareness / repressed / suppressed.

The exile parts are kept closed off from conscious awareness as a means of psychological self-protection as these parts contain distressing memories and painful emotions such as neediness/dependency, intense anger, grief, fear, shame, loneliness and vulnerability.

MANAGER PARTS :

These are the parts of ourselves that try to keep us in control and allow us to function on a day-to-day basis and keep extreme/distressing/counterproductive emotions at bay. Frequently, too, these parts are extremely self-critical.

FIREFIGHTER PARTS :

These parts attempt to protect us from the emotional pain the comes upon us when our exile parts start to break through and impinge upon our consciousness and behavior (as may happen,for instance, during periods of intense stress and/or when we are reminded – either consciously or unconsciously – of our childhood trauma).

However, they do this by causing us to behave in impulsive, and, in the long-term, self-destructive ways such as excessive drinking, abuse of narcotics, workaholism, risky, promiscuous sex, gambling and overeating.

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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BPD Sufferers Over-React To Facial Expressions

over reaction to facial expressions
A study conducted by Donegan et al, 2003, found that sufferers of borderline personality disorder (BPD) were prone to interpreting neutral facial expressions as threatening facial expressions.

The study involved 30 participants split into two groups as follows :

Group 1 : This group consisted of 15 individuals who had been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD).

Group 2 : This was the control group, consisting of 15 individuals who did not have borderline personality disorder (BPD).

 

How Was The Study Conducted?

All 30 participants in the study were shown pictures of people with four types of facial expressions, these expressions were as follows :

  • neutral
  • happy
  • sad
  • fearful

Sometimes, too, the participants had to focus on single fixation point (rather than a picture of a face).

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging :

Whilst each of the participants was looking at each of the four different facial expressions, or at the single fixation point, they underwent a brain scanning process known as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

The purpose of undergoing the fMRI whilst looking at the pictures of facial expressions or at the single fixation point was to measure the level of activation in a region of the brain known as the amygdala. The amygdala, among other functions,  is involved in generating negative emotions.

Over react facial expressions

What Were The Findings Of The Study?

When participants from GROUP 1 were shown pictures of faces displaying emotions (versus the single fixation point), their amygdalae were found to be more highly activated than were the amydalae of those from GROUP 2 whilst undergoing the same activities.

Furthermore, interviews after the participants were shown the pictures revealed that some in GROUP 1 had interpreted the neutral faces as being threatening.

What Can We Infer From This Study?

This study suggests that individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be prone to interpreting the facial expressions of others more negatively (e.g. as being threatening when this is not objectively the case) than those individuals who are relatively psychologically healthy.

According to this study, this would, at least in part, appear to be due to an abnormal physiological response in the brain, namely over activation of the amygdala in response to the emotional facial expressions of others.

This finding goes towards explaining why those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) tend to have severe problems in connection with their interpersonal relationships and often perceive others as threatening and as wanting to hurt them which, in turn, frequently gives rise to overly defensive behavior.

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Conversion Disorder And Its Link To Childhood Trauma

conversion disorder

The term conversion disorder refers to a condition in which physical symptoms are manifested as a result of an underlying psychological problem – the psychological problem ‘converts’ itself into a physical problem though generally (without extensive clinical investigation) both the person with the condition and his/her doctor are unaware that the presenting physical problem has its origins in the patient’s troubled condition of mind.

How Common Is Conversion Disorder?

Severe and long lasting symptoms of conversion affect as few as one person in every twenty thousand people each year. People affected tend to be young (about ten-years-old to thirty-five-years-old) and are more likely to be female than male. These uncommon conversion disorders include :

– blindness / impaired vision

– paralysis

– difficulty swallowing

– seizures and convulsions (not caused by epilepsy)

– deafness / impaired hearing

– inability to speak (sometimes also referred to as hysterical aphonia)

– difficulties with swallowing

(The above list is not exhaustive.)

conversion disorder

How Is Conversion Disorder Related To Childhood Trauma?

In order for conversion disorder to be diagnosed, a prior occurring stressor (assumed to have caused the physical symptom) must be identified – often, the identified stressor is childhood trauma (first described by Sigmund Freud who regarded conversion disorder as a defence mechanism against internal mental conflict).

How Can Psychological Problems Convert To Physical Ones?

This is not yet fully explicable.

Problems Associated With Diagnosis Conversion Disorder :

Problems with diagnosis of conversion disorder include the difficulty of ruling out all possible alternative (i.e. organic as opposed to psychological) explanations for the development of the physical problem, including the possibility that the patient is feigning the symptom.

Treatment Of Conversion Disorder :

Because conversion disorder has its roots in psychological difficulties, often those suffering from it have also been diagnosed with a mental health condition such as anxiety or depression; treating the comorbid condition may alleviate or eliminate the particular physical symptom pertaining to the individual’s conversion disorder.

NB When no obvious prior psychological stressor can be found to have preceded a physical symptom with no medically explicable cause a formal diagnosis of conversion disorder cannot be made; in such cases, a diagnosis of functional neurological symptom disorder  is sometimes made instead.

 

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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Alfred Adler : The Importance Of How We Reconstruct The Past

Alfred Adler and memory

Alfred Adler (1870-1937), the famous Austrian psychotherapist, emphasized that it is our interpretation of the past, rather than the ‘objective’ past (even trying to explain what the ‘objective’ past is in relation to our own lives is fraught with insurmountable, philosophical complexities) that is crucial is determining its emotional and psychological effects upon us.

Indeed, our pasts are of such complexity that our recollection of it is, of necessity, a simplification and reconstruction. Obviously that is not to say it is all a reconstruction – we know what school we went to, if our parents got divorced and so on, after all – nevertheless, we all have our own personal narrative about our pasts as a whole; in essence, it is a story we tell ourselves, built on the scaffold of some blunt facts but given personal meaning by the way we interpret and reconstruct its key events and experiences.

Alfred Adler

Above : Alfred Adler (1870-1937).

Alfred Adler And The Importance He Gave To Our First Memory :

The above is borne out by the importance Alfred Adler placed upon his patients’ first memories. This is so because he was relatively unconcerned about the actual accuracy of this first memory (after all, it was not possible for him to confirm how accurate these memories were). The reason for this relative lack of concern was because Adler realized it is what we believe has happened to us in our lives / childhoods is what really counts.

This does not imply that what we recall bears no resemblance to what happened, only that it is how we recollect our past and what we believe its meaning to be that is paramount.

After all, the effect of false beliefs are just as powerful as those of true beliefs : if a doctor lies to us and tells us we have three months to live and we believe it, its effect is precisely the same on our emotional state as it would be were it true. Our beliefs, in such cases, dictate how we feel – irrespective of reality.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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What Is Psychic Numbing?

 

what is psychic numbing?

Severe emotional distress and trauma can lead to a psychological defense known as psychic numbing.

Psychic numbing occurs when our conscious experience becomes so overwhelmingly, mentally painful that our feelings, in effect, ‘switch themselves off;’ the result is a kind of psychological ‘escape from reality’ – a reality which has become too terrible to tolerate.

Those who experience psychic numbing may use metaphors in an attempt to describe their condition such as : ‘It’s as if I’ve turned to stone,’ or, ‘it’s like my heart’s become made of stone.’ Sadly, in this state, the person may feel s/he no longer cares about him/herself or others – even close family members / previously close friends.

This may sound a distressing state to be in in itself, but part of the condition of psychic numbing means, too, that the person may also not care that s/he doesn’t care.

How Long Does Psychic Numbing Last?

The condition may be a relatively transient response following a severely traumatic incident or it may become a long-term in response to protracted exposure to traumatic conditions especially, for example, if one has developed complex posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of a traumatic childhood. In such cases, the sense of psychic numbing may persist (in the absence of effective therapy) for years or even decades.

what is psychic numbing?

Are Both Good And Bad Feelings Affected?

Generally, yes. Whilst the condition may arise as a defense against bad feelings, the ability to feel anything good tends also to greatly diminish, including the loss of the ability to gain pleasure from food and sex (for more about the inability to experience feelings of pleasure, see my article about anhedonia).

The Sense Of ‘Anesthesia.’

When one is in the grip of psychic numbing, it can feel not only as if one has been given an ’emotional anesthetic’, but, sometimes, too, as if one has also been physically anesthetized as the body itself can become relatively numb to the sense of pain.

Research Into Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) And Psychic Numbing :

Some researchers have suggested that the symptom of psychic numbing is intrinsically bound up in the biological responses which form the foundation of PTSD.

Psychic numbing is also closely related to depersonalization and a sense of loss of identity.

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Effects Of Divorce On Children Under Five

effects of divorce on children

 

What Are The Effects Of Divorce On Children Under Five?

I have already written more generally about the effect of divorce on children elsewhere on this site (click here to read one of my related articles). However, this article considers the effect on children who are particularly young (under the age of five years) with specific reference on how it affects the security of their relationships with their parents once they themselves become adults.

A study conducted by Fraley and Heffernan (2013) examined the injurious psychological and emotional effects of parental divorce on very young children in comparison with those sustained by children who were older when their parents divorced.

In essence, it was found that if parents divorce when the child was very young (defined as being 0 to 3-5 years of age) then, once the child becomes an adult, s/he is likely to have a more difficult (specifically, more insecure and less trusting) with his/her parents than those adult individuals whose parents divorced when they were older.
Adverse Effect On Relationship With Father Compared To Adverse Effect On Relationship With Father :
The study also found that parental divorce tends to effect the individual’s relationship with his/her father more negatively than his/her relationship with his/her mother (again, in terms of feelings of trust and security).
It was hypothesized that this finding may be accounted for by the fact that the mother, in most cases, retains custody of the child which tends to mean that there is less damage done to the level of security a child feels with his/her mother compared to that which s/he feels with his/her mother.
Indeed, a further study by the same pair of researchers seemed to bear this hypothesis out as it was found that :
  • if the mother was awarded custody of the child, the child was more likely to have a damaged relationship (in terms of feelings of security) with his/her father
  • however, if the father was awarded custody, the child’s relationship with the father (in terms of security) was relatively less damaged.

Effect On Adult, Romantic Relationships :

The study also found (though the evidence here was rather more tenuous in statistical terms) that those individuals whose parents divorced during his/her childhood were at more likely (though certainly not guaranteed) to be adversely affected by anxiety in connection with adult, romantic relationships in later life.

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depression and anxiety

Childhood Trauma And Its Link To Depression And Anxiety, by David Hosier MSc.

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Structural Dissociation Theory

structural dissociation theory

Structural dissociation theory was developed by Van der Hart, Nijenhuis and Steele (2006).

Essentially, this theory relates to the idea that many of the behaviors that you may feel uncomfortable about, ashamed of, guilty about, or hate are likely to be the behaviors you unconsciously learned as a child to survive in an environment which was hostile, unpredictable, threatening and unsafe. In the present, these behaviors are likely to be triggered by any occurrences or events which, even remotely, resemble the events which once threatened your safety (psychological or physical) as a child.

In other words, the vulnerable, frightened child continues to live within you, trapped in the past, and responding to events now as if they (or, rather, what these events symbolize) were happening then (during your traumatic childhood).

These behaviors, then, can be seen as adaptations : behaviors that allowed you, as a child, to survive; I repeat : they are the legacy of the child within you that, under extreme circumstances, managed to survive and, as such, should cause neither guilt nor shame. THE BEHAVIORS WERE ESSENTIAL AS A MEANS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SELF-PROTECTION.

 

Structural Dissociation Theory In Terms Of Neurobiology :

In terms of neurobiology (the physical/biological workings of the brain) the theory states that when events occur that we find threatening (on either a conscious or unconscious level) because they trigger implicit memories of our traumatic childhood :

the right half (hemisphere) of the brain and the left half (hemisphere) of the brain become disconnected to a degree that they no longer communicate with one another in an effective manner.

What Are The Functions Of The Left And Right Hemispheres Of The Brain ?

For the sake of simplicity,we can confine ourselves to the functions most pertinent to the theory :

  • The brain’s left hemisphere is involved with day-to-day functioning and is relatively logical, permitting us to struggle on despite internal, mental conflict.
  • The brain’s right hemisphere ‘contains’ the responses that you were forced, by extreme and hostile circumstance, to learn as a child in order to ensure psychological survival, including hypervigilance for imminent danger and perpetual readiness for fight/flight/freezing/fawning – whatever was necessary to avert danger (real or perceived).

structural dissociation theory

Splitting / Fragmentation :

The personality of the individual who has experienced severe childhood trauma can become split / fragmented so that when events occur that cause stress / fear / make the individual feel threatened / remind the individual, however tenuously (on a conscious or unconscious level), of their childhood trauma the responses stored in the brain’s right hemisphere are triggered (fight/flight/freeze/fawn responses) whereas the brain’s left hemisphere guides ‘normal’ everyday behavior, allowing the person, to some degree at least, to function. To simplify :

  • Stress, threat, fear etc / implicit reminders of childhood trauma = right hemisphere dominant
  • Everyday functioning = left hemisphere dominant

Compartmentalization and Self-Alienation :

Whilst such compartmentalization may allow our day-to-day functioning to continue under one guise or another, there is, however, a price to be paid : the individual can suffer from intense feelings of self-alienation, self-loathing, shame (that s/he is ‘concealing’ a ‘bad,’ ‘secret’ self) and a sense of being a ‘fake’ and ‘fraudulent’ person.

My next article (Part Two) will look at how we might best overcome this problem.

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Effects Of Trauma Should Be Addressed Rather Than Its Events

addressing effects of trauma

According to J Fisher, PhD, Assistant Educational Director of The Sensorimotor Psychotherapy Institute and author of the book Healing The Fragmented Selves Of Trauma Survivors, it is of greater importance to address the effects of a person’s traumatic past rather than its specific events. Why should this be?

Sigmund Freud, often referred to as the ‘father of psychoanalysis’, originally treated his patients by helping them to remember, and piece together, their childhood traumatic experiences, the memory of which had been largely repressed.

The idea was that by talking about what had happened to them during childhood, and bringing their traumatic memories into conscious awareness, they would be able to develop a coherent narrative relating to their adverse experiences which would, in turn, alleviate their psychological distress and the symptoms pertaining to their early life trauma.

This kind of therapy is usually referred to as talk therapy or psychodynamic psychotherapy.

Possible long-term effects of childhood trauma

Above : Possible long-term effects of childhood trauma

However, various researchers (e.g. Herman, 1992) have highlighted the fact that many therapists who have adopted this approach to treating their traumatized patients / clients have found that these same patients / clients are made worse rather than better by this ‘talking cure’ strategy.

Specifically, it had been found that patients / clients, when treated in such a way, can become flooded and overwhelmed by the myriad implicit memories this form of therapy is prone, inadvertently, to trigger. To read my article about trauma and implicit (also referred to as non-declarative) memories, click here.

In her book, Fisher takes the view that, rather than bringing into conscious awareness the ‘full narrative’ of our childhood trauma and replaying it in its raw form until we can ‘face-up’ to it, it is more important to learn how to deal with the effects /symptoms of the trauma, such as learning to feel safe,  secure and relaxed in the here and now and to ameliorate present feelings of fear and panic.

Fisher recommends the following cutting-edge therapies for addressing the effects of trauma : mindfulness a based therapies, internal family systems therapy, sensorimotor psychotherapy and clinical hypnotherapy.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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