The Association Between Child Abuse, Trauma and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD).

childhood_trauma_and_early_signs_of_psychosis

‘Character depends essentially on whether a person is given love, protection, tenderness and understanding during the formative years or is exposed to rejection, coldness, indifference and cruelty.’

Alice Miller.


THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD ABUSE, TRAUMA AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER.

Many research studies have shown that individuals who have suffered childhood abuse, trauma and/or neglect are very considerably more likely to develop borderline personality disorder (BPD) as adults than those who were fortunate enough to have experienced a relatively stable childhood.

it is thought marilyn munroe suffered from BPD

It is thought Marilyn Monroe suffered from BPD

Kurt Cobain bpd
Did Kurt Cobain Suffer From BPD?

 

WHAT IS BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER (BPD)?

 

BPD sufferers experience a range of symptoms which are split into 9 categories. These are:

1) Extreme swings in emotions
2) Explosive anger
3) Intense fear of rejection/abandonment sometimes leading to frantic efforts to maintain a relationship
4) Impulsiveness
5) Self-harm
6) Unstable self-concept (not really knowing ‘who one is’)
7) Chronic feelings of ’emptiness’ (often leading to excessive drinking/eating etc ‘to fill the vacuum’)
8) Dissociation ( a feeling of being ‘disconnected from reality’)
9) Intense and highly volatile relationships

For a diagnosis of BPD to be given, the individual needs to suffer from at least 5 of the above.

frequently rejected in childhood, BPD sufferers live in terror of abandoment

frequently rejected in childhood, BPD sufferers live in terror of abandonment

A person’s childhood experiences has an enormous effect on his/her mental health in adult life. How parents treat their children is, therefore, of paramount importance.

BPD is an even more likely outcome, if, as well as suffering trauma through invidious parenting, the individual also has a BIOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY.

In relation to an individual’s childhood, research suggests that the 3 major risk factors are:

– trauma/abuse
– damaging parenting styles
– early separation or loss (eg due to parental divorce or the death of the parent/s)

Of course, more than one of these can befall the child. Indeed, in my own case, I was unlucky enough to be affected by all three. And, given my mother was highly unstable, it is very likely I also inherited a biological/genetic vulnerability.

 

EXAMPLES OF DAMAGING PARENTING STYLES:

 

1) Dysfunctional and disorganized – this can occur when there is a high level of marital discord or conflict. It is important, here, to point out that even if parents attempt to hide their disharmony, children are still likely to be adversely affected as they tend to pick up on subtle signs of tension.

Chaotic environments can also impact very badly on children. Examples are:

– constant house moves
– parental alcoholism/illicit drug use
– parental mental illness and instability/verbal aggression

 

2) Emotional invalidation. Examples include:

– a parent telling their child they wish he/she could be more like his/her brother/sister/cousin etc.
– a parent telling the child he is ‘just like his father’ (meant disparagingly). This invalidates the child’s unique identity.
– telling a child s/he shouldn’t be upset/crying over something, therefore invalidating the child’s reaction and implying the child’s having such feelings is inappropriate.
– telling the child he/she is exaggerating about how bad something is. Again, this invalidates the child’s perception of how something is adversely affecting him/her.
– a parent telling a child to stop feeling sorry for him/herself and think about good things instead. Again, this invalidates the child’s sadness and encourages him/her to suppress emotions.

Invalidation of a child’s emotions, and undermining the authenticity of their feelings, can lead the child to start demonstrating his/her emotions in a very extreme way in order to gain the recognition he/she previously failed to elicit.

 

3) Child trauma and child abuse – people with BPD have very frequently been abused. However, not all children who are abused develop BPD due to having a biological/genetic RESILIENCE and/or having good emotional support and validation in other areas of their lives (eg at school or through a counselor).

Trauma inflicted by a family member has been shown by research to have a greater adverse impact on the child than abuse by a stranger. Also, as would be expected, the longer the traumatic situation lasts, the more likely it is that the child will develop BPD in adult life.

 

4) Separation and loss – here, the trauma is caused, in large part, due to the child’s bonding process development being disrupted. Children who suffer this are much more likely to become anxious and develop ATTACHMENT DISORDERS as adults which can disrupt adult relationships and cause the sufferer to have an intense fear of abandonment in adult life. They may, too, become very ‘clingy’, fearful of relationships, or a distressing mixture of the two.

This site examines possible therapeutic interventions for BPD and ways the BPD sufferer can help himself or herself to reduce BPD symptoms.

 

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Is Freud Still Relevant To The Understanding Of Effects Of Childhood Trauma?

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is the founder of psychodynamic psychotherapy (sometimes called depth therapy). Its most central theory is that our behaviour and feelings are driven by unconscious forces and motivations. In other words, we do not know why we behave and feel as we do (even though we may think we do) because the majority of our mental life goes on in the unconscious and is generally not available to our conscious minds. To provide a simple example:

  • A boy was thrown out of the house of his parents when he was thirteen years old; a few years later he is at a friend’s house with whom he has an argument – this culminates in the friend telling him to get out of his house and the boy who was thrown out by his parents hits him.

The psychodynamic explanation here may be that being told to leave his friend’s house unconsciously triggered the memory and associated pain of having been thrown out of his parents’ house, hence his (seemingly, on the surface) dramatic ‘over-reaction.’

It is true that Freud was unscientific in forming his theories (he himself accepted that much of his work was ‘speculative’). It is also true that very few psychodynamic therapists working today are strict Freudians. However, just because a proportion of his work may well be reasonably rejected as therapeutically unhelpful, this by no means implies that all of his insights should be dismissed.

Indeed, it was Freud who opened society’s eyes to the fact that our early life experiences (and, most especially, our early life relationship with our primary carers) have a dramatic impact upon adult lives.

Above : Sigmund Freud (1856-1939).

Other important ideas he had, which remain useful today include :

  • the repetition compulsion : The theory of the repetition compulsion is that we are unconsciously driven to repeat painful experiences from our childhood (so, for example, a woman who was abused by her father as a child may be unconsciously driven, as an adult, to become repeatedly involved in relationships with abusive men).

Or, to take another example, a man who was rejected by his parents as a child may be unconsciously driven to sabotage all his adult friendships and relationships to a degree that ensures he will continue to be yet further rejected.

On the surface, the idea that we are unconsciously motivated to re-experience painful episodes in our lives seems odd, but you can read about the psychodynamic reasoning behind it by clicking here).

  • the importance of dreams : Freud believed that by analysing the content of our dreams we could gain an insight into our unconscious mental conflicts; in fact, he described dream analysis as ‘the royal road to the unconscious’.
  • early relationships with primary carers heavily influence our view of our adult relationships (e.g. if our parents rejected us we may believe, as adults, that we are completely unlovable and that we will inevitably continue to be rejected by others even though, in reality, this is not the case – psychoanalysts call this phenomenon ‘transference.’

 

Modern day psychodynamic psychotherapists/ psychologists place far more importance on the relationship between the patient and therapist than was the case for strictly Freudian psychodynamic psychotherapy (strict Freudians barely interact with their patients, instead spending the majority of treatment sessions silently listening to what their patient says – more modern psychodynamic psychotherapists, on the other hand, are far less aloof and more informal).

Some individuals still opt for treatment by traditional, strict Freudian therapists, although this may involve several sessions per week and go on for years, hence it is extremely expensive. The American actor/writer/director, Woody Allen (now in his eighties) famously spent thirty years in this type of therapy but claimed it did him little good.

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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Those Raised In Care Homes More Likely To Develop Paranoia

In the past, research on how schizophrenia develops in individuals focused heavily on genetic factors. However, more recent research is now making it increasingly clear that the environment in which we grew up is strongly related to our chances of developing a psychotic disorder, such as schizophrenia, in adulthood. Indeed, a meta-analysis of the relevant research, conducted at the University of Liverpool in the United Kingdom, suggests that those individuals who were brought up in the care system are at significantly increased risk of developing paranoia (often a major symptom of schizophrenia) as adults.

Schizophrenia (including, of course, paranoid schizophrenia) is a form of psychosis (psychosis involves the affected person losing touch with reality / entering delusional states). The research conducted by the University of Liverpool also revealed that those who suffered severe childhood trauma were at significantly increased risk of developing not just paranoia, but a range of psychotic conditions. One figure derived from this research is quite staggering : in cases of severe childhood trauma, the individual affected may be 5,000% (i.e. 50 times) more likely to develop psychosis than the average person.

In connection with those who had suffered any form of trauma during childhood, such individuals were found to be at a 300% (3 times higher) increased risk of developing psychosis later on in life when compared to the average.

The bottom-line is, we may conclude from this research, is that the environment (i.e. the degree to which it is experienced as traumatic) in which one grows up is strongly associated with one’s risk of developing a psychotic disorder in later life.

And, just as it has already been found that being brought up in a care home increases one’s risk of developing paranoia later in life, it is thought other specific forms of psychosis may be linked to other specific forms of childhood trauma – however, research into this area is still at an early stage.

Finally, it should also be stated that genetic factors may also play a role; for example, some individuals may be ‘genetically’ more resilient to the adverse effects of trauma than others. Further research into this area, too,  needs to be conducted so that the role of genes in the development of psychosis may be more fully understood.

In the past, people with psychotic conditions have largely been treated according to the medical model (sometimes called the biological model) of mental illness; in other words, with medication. However, the above findings suggest that non-medicinal interventions may also be vitally required, such as ‘talk therapies’- therapies of this type may help the individual to process, and come to terms with, his/her traumatic past. One such therapy is trauma-focused cognitive therapy.

 

RESOURCES :

 

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

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Were You Prone To Outbursts Of Rage As Child?

In my youth, I was very prone to outbursts of rage. For instance, I once punched a hole in a wardrobe door. On another occasion, I threw a large and heavy paperweight through my bedroom window. And then there was the time I hacked several deep grooves into the back of a wooden kitchen chair with a 12-inch bread knife. I could go on, but you get the general picture?

So, the question is, what factors contribute to such outbursts of rage in children?

It is not unusual, of course, for children to lose their temper; however, the outbursts of rage displayed by a traumatized child tend to be of a different quality : more intense, more sudden and more out of control; animalistic, even.

One reason for this is that significant, prolonged trauma adversely affects the brain’s biology (in particular the way in which the brain produces the ‘stress hormone’, cortisol, is disrupted). This means that when the traumatized child senses threat or danger (either emotional or physical), the brain’s hardwired circuitry automatically stimulates the child into aggressive behaviour – as a defense mechanism.

It is important to reiterate that the child’s aggression in these circumstances is essentially and fundamentally DEFENSIVE and triggered (unconsciously) by FEAR . This fear may be of being physically harmed or emotionally harmed (eg rejected, abandoned, demeaned or shamed).

During his/her history of being abused, the child has learned how devastating these physical and/or emotional attacks can be and becomes desperate to defend him/herself from further harm – so much so that his/her aggressive behaviour is automatically and unconsciously triggered even when the trigger may seem objectively mild. This is because the child has become hypersensitive to threat so that, even when there is the smallest hint of it, s/he launches (on automatic pilot) a pre-emptive attack (to prevent the threat rapidly escalating – which past experience has shown the child it otherwise will)); the child, in these circumstances, has unconsciously learned that such behaviour has ‘survival value’ and that ‘attack is the best form of defense.’ (In different circumstances the child may learn that AVOIDANCE is the best defense and, therefore, automatically, emotionally ‘shut down’ when s/he senses danger).

It is also known that those who have suffered significant, chronic abuse can cause damage to the development of the brain region known as the amygdala which, in turn, can lead to severe problems controlling the emotions – this will, of course, exacerbate the problem.

 

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Effects Of Inconsistent And Unpredictable Parenting

Coming home each day from school as a child, I would never know what kind of mood my mother would be in; one day she might be deeply depressed, the next excitable (in this mood she would often sing, diva style, her favourite songs from the Mikado – ‘ the flowers that bloom in the spring, tra-la, have nothing to do with the case…’ I can’t remember how the song goes from there, but you get the general idea?). Or she might be seething with anger and full of intense loathing for me, conveying her feelings of deep disgust, evoked by my most unwelcome reappearance, by shrieking insults at me through the kitchen window before I’d even set foot inside the door. (I have written about this elsewhere.)

Whilst there has not been a great deal of research conducted upon the effects of unpredictable and inconsistent parenting on children, there exists evidence to suggest (eg. Luxton, 2007) that those who experience it are at increased risk of developing low self-esteem and depression as adults. (Also, it seems that consistent maternal care may be a particularly important factor in the generation of high self-esteem).

Consistent Parenting:

Healthy families are relatively stable and predictable and the child knows that the parents can be depended upon both physically and emotionally. For example, if a parent says s/he will pick the child up after school, the child can be confident s/he will do so; and if the child is distressed, s/he can depend upon the parent to sooth and comfort him/her; the child knows, too, that if the parent feels the need to discipline him/her, s/he will do so in a fair, reasonable and consistent manner.

Inconsistent Parenting :

In unhealthy families, however, parents may behave towards their children in inconsistent and unpredictable ways. The environment in which the child is compelled to live, therefore, tends to be unstable, chaotic and fraught with potential danger. Because of this, the child is likely to feel constantly anxious – walking on eggshells and fearing what the unpredictable parent may do next.

In such a household, the behaviour of the parent may fluctuate wildly and dramatically (this can be for clinical reasons such as alcoholism, drug addiction, cyclothemia or bipolar disorder). Inconsistency may occur in relation to both physical and emotional care. For example, a parent may leave a lone child at home, promising to be back by 6pm, yet not return until 3 in the morning. And the manner in which the parent uses discipline may be highly unpredictable. Or when the child is distressed, s/he may not be able to depend on the parent for psychological support.

Conclusion :

To reiterate, then, according to research, such inconsistent parenting is associated with those individuals who are on the receiving end of it being placed at higher risk of developing depression and having low self-esteem as adults.

However, to gain a fuller picture, more research needs to be conducted – it is known, for instance, that significant and protracted child abuse puts the abused individual at increased risk of developing a whole range of psychiatric conditions, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) and complex post traumatic stress disorder (cPTSD), in adulthood; it therefore follows that when inconsistent parental behaviour crosses a certain threshold (i.e. when it amounts to chronic, significant abuse), the seriousness of the implications speak for themselves.

RESOURCES :

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Downloadable Hypnosis MP3 / CD :

    Overcome A Troubled Childhood   CLICK HERE.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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Resentment : Effects Of Holding Onto It

If we experienced significant childhood trauma, it is quite understandable that we may harbor feelings of deep resentment. However, such feelings can serve only to prolong and intensify the mental pain we feel. Below is a fairly well-known quote that encapsulates this idea :

‘Resentment is like taking poison and waiting for the other person to die’. 

– Malachy McCourt

Feelings of resentment against another usually build up over a long period of time, often years. If we are still in contact with the person we resent, these feelings may be triggered by present events (such as again being let down by the person), perhaps giving rise to anger that seems, objectively, disproportionate to the current provocation but reflects the intensity of the omnipresent, latent, resentful sentiments that underlie this anger.

Indeed, feeling resentful involves constantly replaying and reliving in our minds the wrong that was done to us and so it can potentially give rise to strong emotional and visceral responses.

The reason we feel resentful against another person may be due to acts of commission (what someone did to us) or acts of omission (what someone failed to do for us), or both.

Feelings of resentment can torment us and make it impossible for us to achieve any semblance of peace of mind. We may, too, displace our feelings of resentment onto others, making us cynical, suspicious and incapable of forming meaningful and reparative new relationships.

So why do we hold onto feelings of resentment?

We may hold onto our feelings of resentment out of a sense of ‘moral integrity’ and a conviction that it would somehow be ‘against justice’ to allow our resentful feelings to abate (in other words, we may firmly believe that our feelings of resentment are ‘just’, therefore to jettison such feelings would be ‘unjust’).

Indeed, we may be of the view that to forgive the perpetrator would show us to be weak and make us vulnerable to incurring yet further psychological damage.

Or we may feel that to let go of our resentment would in some way seem to diminish the seriousness with which we feel the offence against us should be taken – rather like saying what we experienced ‘wasn’t that bad after all’ (which would constitute self-invalidation).

Finally, by hanging onto our resentment we may create for ourselves the illusion that we have more control and power over what happened to us than we actually do.

What Can We Do To Free Ourselves From Such Self-Destructive Feelings Of Resentment?

The bottom line is that tenaciously holding onto resentment, like a snarling pit-bull terrier with a cyanide-laced bone, is often extremely self-defeating and can act as an insurmountable obstacle between us and recovery.

To overcome feelings of resentment it can be useful :

1) to remind ourselves that our resentment may be negatively colouring our view of others, the future and the world in general

2) to remind ourselves that we might be displacing our feelings of resentment onto others who do not deserve to be treated badly, spoiling our relationships

3) to view our insistence on clinging onto our feelings of resentment as a kind of addiction or obsession which needs to be overcome

4) to remind ourselves that the stress and mental anguish our resentment causes us is almost certainly not worth it, especially as we cannot change the wrong that was committed against us and that our resentment is likely to be hurting us much more than the person we resent

5) to consider undergoing a therapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to help us think less negatively

6) to remind ourselves that our belief that our feelings of resentment make us more powerful, in control and strong is likely to be an illusion

7) to remind ourselves that staying resentful, in many ways, allows the perpetrator to continue to make us unhappy, thus giving him/her continued power over us

8) to consider forgiving the perpetrator

Resources:

Self-hypnosis MP3s/CDs:

 

LET GO OF THE PAST – click here for more details.

DON’T HOLD GRUDGES – click here for more details.

 

David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

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Seven Key Elements That Aid Brain Repair

We have seen from several other articles that I have published on this site how significant childhood trauma can adversely affect the physical development of the brain which, in turn, can result in various cognitive, emotional and behavioural problems in adulthood.

However, we have also seen, thanks to a quality in the brain known as neuroplasticity, that it is now known that, under certain conditions, the brain has the potential to recover from the damage it incurred during early life. For example, if our brain was affected in such a way when we were young that, as adults, we are extremely anxious and hypersensitive to stress, mindfulness meditation has been shown by much research to have the potential to greatly alleviate this problem.

 

In order for positive changes to take place in the brain that are long-lasting, it is necessary to alter the structure of the brain on a neuronal level; seven major elements that are of great importance to achieving this are as follows :

THE SEVEN KEY ELEMENTS :

  1. NOVELTY – the brain must receive new information and stimuli in order to change itself
  2. REPETITION – the brain must be repeatedly exposed to this new information to enable it to start making, strengthening and consolidating new neural connections.
  3. ATTENTION – it is necessary to pay good attention to the new information/stimuli for the new, beneficial neural connections to occur (paying attention stimulates the production of acetylcholine in the brain which aids the development of these new neural connections)
  4. DIET – in particular, Omega 3 helps the development of new neural connections (Omega 3 can be bought as a supplement).
  5. AEROBIC EXERCISE – research suggests that this form of exercise helps the brain to positively regenerate itself
  6. RELATIONSHIPS – forming close bonds with others (and, importantly, relating well to ourselves) has also been shown to lead to beneficial brain development
  7. SLEEP – it is important to get sufficient sleep (research suggests that the brain most actively ‘repairs’ itself during sleep).

RESOURCES:

Self-hypnosis MP3 downloads :

Repeated self-hypnosis can also be used to positively alter the brain – visit hypnosisdownloads,com

 

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE)

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Anxiety And Its Link To The Imbalance Of 5 Key Neurotransmitters

We have seen from many other articles that I have published on this site that significant childhood trauma over a protracted period of time can adversely affect the brain’s physical development both in terms of its structure and function. One common result of this is that, as adults, we are more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder (such as social anxiety, panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder) than are those individuals who experienced a relatively stable upbringing (all else being equal).

Indeed, two very serious disorders associated with childhood trauma – borderline personality disorder (BPD) and complex post traumatic disorder (cPTSD) – both have anxiety as one of their most prominent symptoms.

Many individuals who suffer from anxiety take prescribed medication for it. This is because anxiety is linked to the imbalance of various neurotransmitters in the brain and medications can sometimes helpfully correct such imbalances (though, like any treatment for anxiety, they do not work equally well for everyone – indeed, in my own case, very few medications I have ever taken for anxiety have had any beneficial effect whatsoever).

What Are Neurotransmitters And What Is Meant By ‘Out Of Balance’?

The brain contains about 10 billion neurons (brain cells). Each of these can potentially communicate with 10,000 other neurons. This communication is carried out by the brain’s neurotransmitters and this communication gives rise to how we think, behave and feel.

When neurotransmitters become out of balance, it simply means that there is an excess or insufficiency of them being produced in the brain. The effect of such an imbalance can cause us problems relating to how we think, behave and feel.

In this article, I want to look at the main neurotransmitters in the brain that are found to be out of balance in those suffering from an anxiety disorder; they are :

  1. SEROTONIN
  2. DOPAMINE
  3. NOREPINEPHRINE
  4. GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)
  5. GLUTAMATE

What Symptoms Are Caused By Imbalances Of The Above Neurotransmitters In The Brain?

I briefly describe these below :

  1. LOW LEVELS OF SEROTONIN CAN CAUSE : 

 

       2. LOW LEVELS OF DOPAMINE CAN CAUSE :

  • inability to feel pleasure (anhedonia)
  • loss of motivation
  • delusions / psychosis
  • obsession with detail / perfectionism

 

         3. HIGH LEVELS OF NOREPINEPHRINE CAN CAUSE :

  • impaired ability to think coherently / scattered thoughts
  • intense anxiety and restlessness
  • impending sense of doom
  • sense of extreme tension (both bodily and psychologically)
  • hyperarousal
  • feeling ‘wired’ and ‘jittery’
  • panic attacks

4. GABA :

  • when GABA works ineffectively it can cause panic attacks and can cause a

         5. GLUTAMATE imbalance which can, in turn, exacerbate an imbalance in other neurtransmitters

 

As stated above, medication prescribed to help correct the imbalance of neurotransmitters does not work equally well for everyone. Non-drug methods of treating anxiety which can be effective include :

  1. COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY (CBT)
  2. MINDFULNESS MEDITATION
  3. BREATHING EXERCISES
  4. HYPNOTHERAPY / COGNITIVE HYPNOTHERAPY

RESOURCES :

pack-beat-fear-anxietyBEAT FEAR AND ANXIETY

 

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

 

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Early Trauma Can ‘Shut Down’ Prefrontal Cortex

prefrontal cortex

First, I will describe the main functions of the brain’s prefrontal cortex ; they are as follows :

  • modulates feelings of fear associated with threat (eg calms us down if a raised alarm turns out to be a false alarm)
  • controls the intensity of our emotions (so we are neither inappropriately under-emotionally aroused nor inappropriately over-emotionally aroused)
  • helps us to plan and control impulsive, ‘knee-jerk’ reactions
  • helps us to become mentally attuned to others and to empathize with them
  • provides us with a moral awareness and ethical framework
  • provides us with insight into the workings of our own minds
  • helps us behave rationally
  • helps us to think logically
  • helps us maintain a healthy balance between hyperarousal (too much arousal) and hypoarousal (too little arousal).

 

Above : The position in the brain of the prefrontal cortex.

 

How Early Trauma Adversely Affects The Development Of The Prefrontal Cortex :

Even in emotionally and mentally ‘healthy’ individuals, the prefrontal cortex does not become fully developed until the age of about 25 years; this is a major reason why the behaviour of someone aged, say, eighteen, is often more erratic and ill-considered than that of a person aged, for example, twenty six years. (It follows from this that a strong argument can be put forward that courts of law should take into account the underdevelopment of the prefrontal cortex in younger adults when considering sentences for this age group.)

Also, crucially, the development of the prefrontal cortex is particularly sensitive to the emotional and psychological environment in which we grow up.

Indeed, if one has suffered severe trauma when growing up, the prefrontal cortex (specifically, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex)  may not physically develop to its usual size  and, therefore, in adulthood, be of a smaller volume than average. This can inhibit the functions listed above to varying degrees (depending upon the degree to which the development of the brain region has been damaged). In particular, the individual affected in this way may develop hypersensitivity to stressful stimuli, an inability to calm him/herself down when experiencing stress (sometimes described by psychologists as an inability to self-regulate emotions) and abnormally high levels of fear and anxiety.

Extreme fear responses and high levels of anxiety are particularly likely to occur when an individual who has incurred damage to the prefrontal cortex due to childhood trauma experiences a stressful event or situation which triggers memories (on either a conscious or unconscious level) of the childhood trauma.

HOPE OFFERED BY NEUROPLASTICITY :

However, there is hope for people who have been affected in this way due to a quality of the brain known as ‘neuroplasticity which allows the brain to repair itself. You can read about this in my article  Mending The Mind With Self-Directed Neuroplasticity.

 

RESOURCES:

improve impulse controlIMPROVE IMPULSE CONTROL. Click here for further details.

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David Hosier BSc Hons; MSc; PGDE(FAHE).

 

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